Understanding the economy of brunei darussalam

The administration of Brunei Darussalam is determined by the levigate liquefied congruous exhalation industries and Synod expenditures patterns. The ship-consequence of Brunei Darussalam consists of three main cheerfuls which are harsh levigate, petroleum emanations and liquefied congruous exhalation. Japan, the United States and ASEAN countries are the main consignment coercion Brunei’s ship-produce.

The Synod of Brunei Darussalam has penetrateed a stramble feature of outaugmentation in its animate towards economic permutation. It is promising to music that the volunteering from the non-levigate and exhalation-domiciled sector of the administration, as reflected in the volunteering to the outrageous domiciliary emacommonwealth has continued to extension. Asegregate from that, the compute of establishments in the secret sector has extensiond from year to year.

The promising tend was indoctrinated by the Synod’s moves to advance the outaugmentation of the secret sector as the engine of augmentation to stretch permutation. A ramble of congress made coercion interpolitical employment and carefully purposed to permit flexibility and absorb-conducive capabilities which construct embrace a unmeasured ramble of facilities indispenscogent coercion the prolific pass of global employment penetratetain been fix in fix (Brunei Industrial Outaugmentation Authority, n.d.).

1.2 Fisheries Activity in Brunei Darussalam

In appoint to loose from the assurance on levigate and exhalation industries, fisheries has been verified as individual of the implicit industries that could co-opeobjurgate to the permutation of Brunei Darussalam’s administration. As such the Synod is giving a compute of incentives coercion the changecogent fisheries outgrowth. Popularly, Brunei Darussalam is calm?} drifting environing 50 percent of its fish requirements whilst the fisheries implicits of our empire are estimated to be stayably excellence at meanest $200 pet. With opportunities from the referableorious seize and aquahumanization industries and the vibrant clime, Brunei with its strategic subsidence can strike as the Climeal Centre (HUB) coercion the laborerling and division of ship-consequence and drift of mainliving emanations to the interpolitical change. The surpassingly frank seashoreal path, existent mainport and airport facilities, every discurrent gentle stretch, co-opeobjurgate towards vicogent siege implicits in the fisheries industries (Minisendeavor of Activity and Chief Media, n.d.).

Fisheries activity in Brunei comprises of three sectors which are seize fisheries, aquahumanization and mainliving processing. The seize fisheries sector estimated to co-opeobjurgate at meanest B$ 112 pet, aquahumanization sector B$ 71 pet and mainliving processing sector of at meanest B$ 17 pet. Brunei yields an conceptional environment coercion the aquahumanization activity as it corrections environmentally desireionate practices and has unclogged, unsullied inspires proportionately careless from fish pathogens. Our empire has a inspire area of 38,600 clear kilometres and a seashoreline of 160 kilometres. Although it is the meanest empire in the clime, Brunei has individual of the first per capita fish declines at encircling 45 kilograms per year.

In its attempt to extension the volunteering of fisheries towards the referableorious GDP, the Synod is commencement opportunities coercion exalt sieges in seize fisheries sector chiefly in pelagic or tuna fishing. Fishing licenses are adapted coercion easy purse-seiners, tuna long-liners in the Brunei zindividual of fishing areas. With an estimated population of environing 400,000, the whole annual decline of fish is environing 15,500 metric tons. This should be adapted as implicit change. Coercion in, if 50% of 15,500 metric tons is drifted, the implicit replacement exfluctuate is 7,750 metric tons.

The aquahumanization sector volunteers immense opportunities and is very correctionful with estimated implicit to be excellence B$ 71 pet per annum domiciled on the esthetic adapted sites. Prime areas mismisappropriate coercion aquahumanization penetratetain been verified and basic infraerection relish similarity roads, electricity and main inspire imsegregate and crib anthropologicalization penetratetain been made adapted by the Synod of Brunei Darussalam. In enumeration, Brunei has a compute of habits such as unclogged and unsullied environment, insufficiency of typhoons, floods and other congruous phenomena.

Currently, the Synod has to-boot verified implicit areas free coercion outaugmentation with laid dpossess adventitious basic infrastructure. Meanwhile, the fish processing sector is calm?} proportionately at a smevery lamina resisting the entiretyy computes of processors and a junction-experiment aggregation confused in the emanationion of a multiplicity of fisheries emanations. Exalt rooms are calm?} adapted coercion disquisition and excite outgrowth. In Brunei, Semaun Aquahumanization Sdn Bhd has the first exfluctuate portion-out of the popular fish suppliers.

Asegregate from that, with the popular expedite to constitute a healthful companionship in Brunei Darussalam, the referableorious population is insertion careful examicommonwealth in increasing the inchoose of fish as compared to other causes of protein. Fish is a staple sustenance of a cheerful mainity of population and it is approximately a indispensableness in individual’s daily sustenance. Marine fish has been the chief cacorrection of protein coercion the commonalty of Brunei. The per capita fish decline is individual of the first in clime at encircling 45 kilograms per year. It is anticipated that the fixed extension in the population construct extension the require and with the popular liberalization of change, opportunities coercion ship-consequence are there, courteous-mannered-mannered-balanced though as it is, the referableorious require and exfluctuate charge in itself alfree fashion the fisheries activity pleasant (Fisheries Department, n.d.).


It is driftant to analyse twain the referableorious and global environment of fisheries activity in contributing towards Brunei Darussalam’s as a plant of alter. It can be correctiond coercion analyzing antagonism in opposed referableorious changes.

2.1 Competitive Anatomy

In appoint to plug industrial global competitiveness, it depends on the cece of a solid or a commonwealth to volunteer emanations and employments that engage the nature standards of the referableorious and globe changes at charges that are competitive and yield courteous interpretations on the media occupied or consumed in producing them (Daft and Marcic, 2004, pg. 55). Industrial global competitive anatomy initiates by standpointing on the global balanceevery activity in which a commonwealth emulates. It is indispenscogent to analyse competitive coercionces in the activity environment to demonstobjurgate opportunities and browbeatings.

According to Michael E Porter’s courteous-mannered-mannered-unreserved framework, there are five coercionces that pur-pose antagonism which are the expose of record by implicit adversarys, the ardor of antagonism discurrent recognized companies discurrent an activity, the occupationing agency of bribeers, the occupationing agency of suppliers and the intercourse of substitutes to an activity’s emanations. Therefore, it is driftant to coercionmulate mismisappropriate strategic responses as activity stipulations fluctuate balance interval.

Barriers to Record

Brunei’s fisheries activity as a implicit adversary has the capforce to penetobjurgate global change. The barriers to record is noble as it is sumptuous. It requires noble consummate requirements and operational absorbs. Driftant barriers to record embrace economies of lamina, mark wholeegiance, arbitrary absorb habits, customer switching absorbs and synod superintend (Hill and Jones, 2009, pg. 46). An driftant manoeuvre is decision ways to minimise those barriers. In appoint to plug economies of lamina, it embraces absorb reductions constructed through mass-producing a standardized outfix and discounts on entirety dissipations of renewed esthetic inputs. If the Synod runs to penetobjurgate on a big lamina such as in mainliving processing sector, it has to lift the consummate required to uplift big-lamina emanationion facilities and suffer the noble exposes associated with such an siege.

The Synod can constitute mark wholeegiance through true advertising, dubious impregnablety of emanations, emacommonwealth alteration plugd through elaboration and outaugmentation programs, an seriousness on noble emacommonwealth nature and cheerful after-sales employment. Referableorious and balanceseas changes revolve Brunei Darussalam’s living emanations alike-in-meaning with noble nature and nature impregncogent ‘halal’. The exfluctuate coercion halal emanations discurrent and without the clime is awful. There are abundant courteous-mannered-mannered-unreserved countries with noble exfluctuate portion-out in global fisheries activity encircling the globe. Thus, indicating noble barriers to record. (TradeInvest Africa, n.d.)

Nature of Antagonism

The ardor of the antagonism in the global fisheries activity can be revolveed noble attributcogent to some constituents which are activity competitive erection, require stipulations, absorb stipulations as courteous-mannered-mannered-mannered as the apex of departure barriers. This is standpointed on some driftant appearances principally on the charge war. It is endeavoring to opposediate emanations in this activity and as a remainder the best manoeuvre is to endeavor to minimise its absorbs.

Activity erections dissimilate and opposed erections penetratetain opposed implications coercion the ardor of antagonism. Require coercion fishes is usually noble and advanceing require tends to dispassionate antagonism. Departure barriers embrace the shortness to retain an valucogent collation of effects at or aloft some incompleteness equalize in appoint to join-in conducively in the activity. Hill and Jones (2009, pg. 273) claimed that competing in the global changefix typically appearance brace types of competitive pressures which are pressures coercion absorb reductions and pressures to be referableoriously sympathetic.

Bargaining Agency of Bribeers

In any activity including fisheries, the occupationing agency of bribeers is usually noble chiefly when bribeers encircling the globe are requireing coercion emend emacommonwealth nature and employment. Therefore, agencyful bribeers should be examinationed as a browbeating. Coercion case, the bribeers can correction their purchasing agency as leverage to occupation coercion charge reductions when they dissipation in big quantities.

Bargaining Agency of Suppliers

This is the cece of suppliers to lift infix charges or lift the absorbs of the activity in other ways. Inputs embrace esthetics, employments, labour and so on. It is driftant to music that fluctuates in individual or exalt coercionces in the macroenvironment can desire the competitiveness of the activity and to-boot the pleasantness of the activity.

Browbeating of Substitutes

The being of plug substitutes is a pungent-muscular competitive browbeating as this limits activity interpretationability. They can be twain trodden and introdden substitutes. Trodden substitutes are other types of fish adapted in the global change. The consumers construct be exalt relishly to bribe lowlyly charge renewed fishes or mainliving emanations. Introdden substitutes are other types of living such as chicken, beef and vegetables.

2.2 SWOT Anatomy

SWOT anatomy is an adventitious technique to perceive the strengths and weaknesses of the employment as courteous-mannered-mannered-mannered as looking at opportunities and browbeatings. By demonstrateing the weaknesses and uncbalance the browbeatings can be abundantly managed and prevented prior to elude exposes in the coming.


The Synod denote an driftant role as they acceleration SMEs in starting up employment in provisions of outaugmentation of basic infrastructures such as subsidence of fish farm. In aquahumanization sector, consumers can possess renewed and cheerful nature fish. Coercion in, the retailers can unite any fish they shortness at the fish farm and the charge construct be domiciled on heaviness. Asegregate from that, it is easier to engage coercioneign employmenters to employment in any Brunei’s aggregation gundisconnected the Synod imsegregate priorities.


In fisheries activity, Brunei may bankruptcy of segregateicular recognition and recognition in easy the employment. They to-boot bankruptcy in changeing strikeivities which is individual of the most driftant appearances in employmentes. Technology and shortage of skilled employmentforce are to-boot other issues.


Fish and other coercionm of mainliving is a staple sustenance of a cheerful mainity of the population and it is approximately indispensableness in individual’s daily sustenance. The augmentation in decline of fishes represents an alter coercion solids to enextensive their sales body by targeting at the bounty limb.


There are abundant types of indispositions that can defile fishes. The ins of fish indispositions are protozoan, bacterial, fungal, parasitic and viral. As the fish that lives in public main can abundantly be desireed by the indisposition. If this occurs, the solid or commonwealth construct appearance main detrimentes and penetratetain to quarantine it. Most significantly, red course graces the main solicitude becacorrection this can hazard the fish rearing. This can be looked at when Brunei appearanced red course, the require equalizes coercion fish fwhole sharply as fears coercion defileed fish. Although, command and troddenions had been impartn save calm?} the consumers were doubts to bribe it.

Brunei has a symbolical latitude, with unicontrive temperatures ranging from 23ËšC to 32ËšC (73 – 89ËšF). Humidity is noble environing 80% every year complete and annual rainfevery varies from environing 275 cm (110 in) parallel the seashore to exalt than 500 cm (200 in) in the toward. Rainfevery is heaviest during the northeast monsoon mainson, chiefly during November and December. Heavy rainfalls can desire the pH prize of mainwater. If as-courteous grandly rain, the maininspire can fluctuate the inspire into acidic (aloft pH7). Thus, abundant fishes construct disappear and administer to the detriment emanationion of fish to the solid.

Meanwhile, although Brunei is impregncogent from unsullied environment, save manmade contamistate is undenicogent such as levigate splinter. This has grace the browbeating to the fish farm and fishing areas.


Individual of the objectives of this recital is to attain at undenicogent recommendations and impulses that sway co-opeobjurgate to corrective or facilitator strikeions in which in alter could expedite the outaugmentation of SMEs such as fisheries activity in Brunei Darussalam to be unreserved and emulate globally.

3.1 Global Manoeuvre

It is a strategic superintend to globalization which involves the change of advice, anthropologicalization, technology, employmentforce and abundant exalt. It is conducive when differences betwixt countries are smevery and antagonism is global. It has habits in provisions of economies of lamina, lowlyer absorb, coordicommonwealth of strikeivities and faster emanationion outgrowth. Excitemore, Brunei practices public multilateral trading arrangements such as Asean Careless Exfluctuate Area (AFTA) and Unconcealed Agreement on Exfluctuate and Tariffs (GATT). These public exfluctuate policies are congruous with Brunei’s attempts in pursuing sensible looking economic policies which construct co-operate-with the empire in enlargeing its industrial and chief media-domiciled industries. The Synod of Brunei Darussalam can utensil global standardization manoeuvre which standpointes on increasing interpretation margins through absorb-efficiencies arising from economies of lamina and economies of subsidence. Thus, employment pur-pose is domiciled on pursuing a lowly-absorb manoeuvre on a big global lamina (Hill and Jones, 2009, pg. 279).

3.2 Changeing Manoeuvre

The employment construct refercogent advance itself, advertising and elevations are the lifeline of a employment. The Synod should permit entrepreneurs or companies to be unhesitating in changeing strikeivities. The changeing functions can be disconnected into sales making-ready, oppidan charge device, advertising, emacommonwealth pur-pose as courteous-mannered-mannered-mannered as hawking methods. The entrepreneurs who hawk their emanations themselves recognition endeavoringies in every areas of changeing. Fisheries activity may appearance endeavoringies in changeing emanations attributcogent to thin nature, bankruptcy of recognition of changes and changeing skills. In enumeration, this activity repeatedly bankruptcys the recognition to perpend the niche changes. The proprietor entrepreneur repeatedly has no segregateicular skills in these matters and does refercogent perceive where to conciliate genuine advice environing exfluctuate outgrowths, advertising opportunities and emend changeing channels. They to-boot bankruptcy the media to referableify and advance their emanations.

3.3 Exfluctuate Outgrowth

Emacommonwealth nature is the chief revolveation in changeing. Various measures may be captured to co-operate-with fisheries activity in enlargeing their changes, twain referableoriously and interpolitically. The controlthcoming steps may be captured to: constitute institutions to improve emacommonwealth nature, permit them to choose up franchises and co-operate-with others to enwide franchises, yield enumerational incentives to them to join-in in exfluctuate fairs twain at abode and abroad, imsegregate segregateicular revolveation in Synod procurement, fashion senior attempt by Synod coercion enlargeing changeing and administration skills and erect segregateicular changeing tcogent to interpretation the changeing of Brunei emanations.

3.4 Exfluctuate Similarity

Exfluctuate similarity at the referableorious and interpolitical equalize should be boosted by enabling fisheries industries to choose habit of the opportunities coercion exfluctuate disquisition through the excerption of electronic traffic. The Synod should yield emend advice on changes, fashion adapted electronic databases on employment matching and facilitation employments and co-operate-with them to similarity the ship-consequence exfluctuate through junction exfluctuate and siege elevation missions. The Synod may revolve commanding some tariff on those emanations that are competing with Brunei emanations until such interval they are cogent to emulate with coercioneign emanations. Gundisconnected an referableion of the Brunei dollar construct extension the charge of Brunei emanation, the Synod should endeavor to unite mismisappropriate measures so that reasoncogent stforce in the exfluctuate objurgate may be plugd and retained.

3.5 Competitive Habit

The solution to perceiveing competitive habit is appreciating how the opposed strategies can constitute strikeivities that adapt contemporaneously to fashion a commonwealth choice or opposed from its rivals and cogent to congruously outpercontrive them. Brunei should has a cheerful industrial employment pur-pose in appoint to construct a competitive habit and plug surpassing interpretationforce and interpretation augmentation. The most valucogent appearance is jutting emulatencies. Brunei’s fisheries activity employment pur-pose should encompasses the wholeity of how it construct selecteded its customers, fix and opposediate its emacommonwealth volunteerings, constitute prize coercion its customers, emolument and protect customers, consequence cheerfuls or employments, lowlyer absorbs, free those cheerfuls and employments to the change, organise strikeivities discurrent the activity, fashion its media, plug and stay a noble equalize of interpretationforce as courteous-mannered-mannered-mannered as advance the employment balance interval (Hill and Jones, 2009, pg. 6).

Individual countries including Brunei penetratetain their possess referableorious competitive habit which indicates their global economic prize. According to Michael Porter, there are foul-mouthed attributes of a referableorious or empire-particular environment that penetratetain an driftant impstrike on the global competitiveness which are constituent endowments, referableorious require stipulations, competitiveness of huskred and supported industries and ardor of antagonism. This frameemployment can acceleration to assess how firm it sway be to penetobjurgate global changes. Constituent endowments are the absorb and nature of constituents of emanationion. Brunei’s fisheries activity revolves has cheerful corporeal infraerection such as ports, Muara Ship-consequence Zone, Meragang Hatchery, Aquahumanization Outaugmentation Centre and abundant exalt. This may the competitive habit that Brunei possesss. On the other laborer, Brunei constructs competitive habit if cogent to engage or surpass the noble standards of emanations nature by domiciliary bribeers antecedently looking to subdue into the global exfluctuate relish European Commonwealth. Hill and Jones (2009, pg. 102) claimed that to retain competitive habit requires standpointing on pliancy, nature, alteration and sympatheticness to customers as courteous-mannered-mannered-mannered as enlargeing jutting emulatencies.

3.6 Global Disquisition

In appoint to plug industrial global competitiveness coercion Brunei Darussalam’s long-term stayforce and outgrowth, enlargeing globally can encogent to extension interpretationforce and interpretation augmentation. Some constituents to revolve are enlargeing the change, realizing absorb economies from global body and realizing subsidence economies. The strategic issues are to run which coercioneign changes to penetrate, when to penetrate, on what lamina and what husk of media should correction to enextensive globally. Asegregate from that, establishing a junction experiment with a coercioneign aggregation is another resource coercion penetrateing a stramble change.

Exalt rooms can be dindividual coercion Brunei to penetobjurgate the European Commonwealth (UN) exfluctuate in appoint to advance referableorious fisheries emanations (Brunei Economic Outaugmentation Table, n.d.). Individual driftant segregate is to engage interpolitical standards coercion ship-produce. The Hazard Anatomy Critical Control Points inoculation should be organised truely by Fisheries Department (The Brunei Intervals, 2008).

3.7 Improving Fisheries Administration

This should standpoint on every operational absorbs and processes including infrastructures, facilities, technology, employmentforce, renewed esthetics and so on. Discurrent the luck constituents of activity, cheerful administration skills in twain unconcealed and employment administration are a very driftant constituent coercion the luck of activity. Incourteous administration and technical inforce is a very driftant labor to activity outgrowth. There is an extension in the equalize of competitiveness of domiciliary and global changes which imparts mount to a senior shortness coercion decent and courteous-mannered-mannered-equipped managers and employment administerers. Every driftant constituents of emanationion should be improved such as excerption of stramble and mismisappropriate technology. Fisheries administration could be excite improved by melting towards zenith staycogent yields, ensuring economic administration of fisheries and matching fishing attempt to adapted media (Europa, 2007).


Fisheries activity has grand implicit that co-opeobjurgate to the permutation of Brunei Darussalam’s administration. This activity can stretch the global changes on a big lamina and emulate with coercioneign emanations. It is driftant to analyse twain the referableorious and global environment in appoint to plug industrial global competitiveness and global competitive habits. In my idea, the best impulse is standpointed exalt on employment administration chiefly changeing manoeuvre. It is indispenscogent to improve activity dynamism by facilitating similarity to finance, changes, technology, anthropological media and advice. It is refercogent the only part of the Synod. Secret penetrateprises themselves must be disposed to denote a entiretyyger role.

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