Thesis prospectus guide.

Thesis prospectus:
My thesis is about attracting the high income people in using public transit, I didn’t find that much of literature on the topic so now I’m focused on behavior change.
Most of the information you’re going to find it in the attached voice note

• Overview
a. Problem definition ( what are the factors of social cognitive theory that predicts behavioral change of local emirates population in using public transportation in Abu Dhabi)
b. Motivation ( write it on your on)
c. Objectives (is to identify the role factors of cognitive theory that are significant impredecting people behavior change in using public transit in Abu Dhabi among high income groups specially the emirates population
d. Literature review (write about the theories about people behavior and how we choose the social cognitive theory based on data and the analysis we found, write what the challenges that we found in senses of high income communities using the public transit) articles will be included

• Research Plan
a. Methodology (you will find it on the voice note
b. Preliminary results (if available) (no need for this part)
c. Gantt chart (literature review, drafting of theory, identifying concepts that are relevant to public transportation, development of the questionnaire, amination the questionnaire, collect clean and analyze data, write the resource)
d. References

Thesis Prospectus

Table of Contents
Thesis Prospectus 4
1. Overview 4
a. Problem definition 4
b. Motivation 4
2. Literature Review 5
3. Research Plan 7
a. Methodology 7
b. Preliminary Results 7
c. Gantt Chart 7
4. References 8

Thesis Prospectus
1. Overview
a. Problem definition
For years, the countries with major cities have been facing the challenge of public congestion and traffic problems such as Abu Dhabi. The potential to have high income populations using the public transit means is a major way of reducing traffic congestion. However, the concern is to understand the key factors of social cognitive theory that projects the behavioral change of the local emirates population to use public transportation (Şimşekoğlu, Nordfjærn, & Rundmo, 2015). It is important to study the critical factors influencing social cognitive response of people to understand the nature of behavior change. Based on the social cognitive theory, some of the key role factors that could influence behavior change include threat, fear, self-efficacy, and response efficacy (Lyons, Lewis, Mayrsohn, & Rowland, 2014). For example, self-efficacy refers to the individual confidence in their capacity to undertake certain recommended response. In spite of all, these role factors of social cognitive theory will need to be introduced by public strategies and policies to bring about actual behavior change. For example, the government in Abu Dhabi can create awareness on the benefits of public transit among the local emirates population triggering response efficacy and self-efficacy actions (Bélanger-Gravel, Gauvin, Fuller, & Drouin, 2016). Therefore, assessment of key factors of social cognitive model would be help in triggering behavior change towards public transit in local emirates population in Abu Dhabi.
b. Motivation
Considering the rising population in Abu Dhabi, the possibility of high income people using public transit would reduce traffic congestion and potentially enhance sustainability in the transportation process. The social cognitive theory seeks to understand the key issues and factors that influence behavior change among people. The opportunity to understand these factors is critical in promoting public transit adoption among the high income groups. The assessment of varied social cognitive factors is critical in shaping the growth of the public transit systems (Hall, Chai, Koszewski, & Albrecht, 2015). Another motivation for the research study is the drive to learn about the impact of behavior change among high income groups in Emirates region in Abu Dhabi. Theoretically, the approach will analyze the critical factors influencing behavioral change to shape the social cognitive models about public transportation (Montanaro, & Bryan, 2014). Understanding the perception of the high income people will help in aligning the public transit systems to the current environment. In addition, the ability to improve the current public transit systems is seen as an important factor for improving the number of high income people willing to use the public transportation means. Therefore, the desire to understand how people behavior’s and attitude on using public transit mean changes is essential in the conduction of the research study.
c. Objectives
The main aim is to determine the role factors of cognitive theory significant in predicating people behavior change in using public transit in Abu Dhabi among high income population, more so the emirates population. The research study will allow for additional discussion and review on the ways of improving the public transit methods to accommodate the high income groups in the Emirates of Abu Dhabi. The key role factors of cognitive theory will be essential in understanding the policy decisions and actions that needs to be implemented to motivate high income groups into adopting public transit (Bamberg, 2014). Moreover, it will seek to determine the key reasons of behavioral change and attitude towards public transportation in Abu Dhabi.
2. Literature Review
Several studies have been conducted to determine how people’s behavior changes with the impact of social cognitive theory and associated factors. A research work by Lois, Moriano and Rondinella (2015) determined that the social-cognitive model places more emphasizes on the cognitive elements including thinking and judgement in the development of strong personality. The researchers have found out that the creation of cognitive personality approaches helps in creating the social-cognitive models (Mallia, Lazuras, Violani, & Lucidi, 2015). Because of this, an individual behavior usually depends on their situations. Such aspect counters the trait model that behavior is dependent on the traits of a person and should always be aligned across the varied circumstances. Davis et al. (2015) examined the debate on whether situations or traits have a significant influence on the prediction of potential behavior change. However, the idea of self-regulation is critical in shaping the cognitive process that often influences behavior change. In terms of changing attitude on public transportation, the high income groups in Abu Dhabi can be compelled through the setting up of regulations and policies that demands people to use public transportation means (Donald, Cooper, & Conchie, 2014). Such regulations would be critical in ensuring that high income earners also use public transit due to their situational cues.
A research study by Hall, Chai, Koszewski and Albrecht (2015) reviewed the critical implications of social cognitive theory on the development of nutrition education. It mainly focused on understanding the validity of the social cognitive theory on knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior among students. The study used a 40-item instrument using content validity and tested the internal consistency of the students. The research study determined that the social cognitive theory instrument is reliable and useful tool, more so for understanding self-efficacy and behavior (Friman, Huck & Olsson, 2017). Based on these research outcomes, the Abu Dhabi government should implement strategic actions to improve the transit systems in relation to efficiency and quality of the transport system.
According to Hogg (2016), some of the challenges associated with high income communities adopting public transit include the negative attitude towards traffic congestion, long commutes, and limited secondary infrastructure among others. High income groups often fear public transportation methods as they are often associated with traffic congestion and delays. In most occasions, the public transit buses have route delays and fixed routes that often makes them unsuitable for high income persons in the society. Making the public transit flexible and highly efficient would make them more suitable for the high income people in the Emirates region. Long commutes are another huge concern as people are forced to walk for long distance to get public transit means (Chan, et al., 2015). The cities should address the problem of getting access to public transportation modes. Public transit options should be better systems that are accessible providing more opportunities for high income people to travel easily. The lack of supporting secondary infrastructure often makes it challenging for the public transit usage in the cities (Nordfjærn, Şimşekoğlu, & Rundmo, 2014). The high income groups require better amenities and supporting transportation programs to expand their route stop infrastructure.
According to Heydari, Dashtgard, and Moghadam (2014), they evaluated the impact of social cognitive theory on the addiction of clients. The study relied on two group experimental approaches with 60 clients who were ready to understand how the influence of social cognitive theory on their interventions to quit addition. Based on the final results, the test groups were determined to be successful compared to the control group in the process of quitting addiction (Hoffmann, et al., 2017). The research findings determined the social cognitive is effective in addressing social problem as it enhances self-efficacy. It shows that it is possible for high income population to adapt to the public transit through continued awareness and recurrence. According to Montanaro and Bryan (2014), the government of Abu Dhabi will need to invest in proper education programs for the high income people to inform them and create good motivations on using the public transit methods.
Conroy, Yang and Maher (2014) argued that people have a huge capacity to achieve many things. The qualities of people are created depending on the life paths they take and they are also influenced by the societal systems. The social systems around the high income people usually create competencies that encourage use of private cars and means of transportation (Légal, Meyer, Csillik, & Nicolas, 2016). Positive change in the societal stems including the public transit to include the high income groups would create generalizable competencies, promote self-efficacy, and allow for the people to use the public transit means (Cheung, & To, 2017). However, they need to be well-structured to meet the needs of the high income populations in emirates area of Abu Dhabi. High income people prefer sophisticated, flexible, and quality means of transportation (Şimşekoğlu, Nordfjærn, & Rundmo, 2015). With significant investment in the public transportation sector, it will be possible to convince the richer people in the region to use the public transit means.
3. Research Plan
a. Methodology
A survey-questionnaire based methodology will be used in determining the social cognitive factors influencing behavior change towards public transit methods in local emirates population in Abu Dhabi. The research study will sample 25 from the high income population in local emirates region. Random sampling method will be used in the selection of the suitable candidates to get reliable and valid results (Kaplan, et al., 2015). The questionnaires will be opened for inspection 30 minutes before being administered. The sampled participants will both males and females without any clear specifications. The survey questionnaires will send by email or administered in an identified office location.
b. Preliminary Results
None at this time.
c. Gantt Chart
Activities Start Date End Date Days/total % Complete Status
Literature review 09/10/17 09/10/18 394 30% In progress
Drafting of theory 10/23/17 10/30/17 7 100% Complete
Identification of concepts critical to public transportation 11/02/17 12/20/17 50 50% Complete
Development of the questionnaire 10/17/17 11/16/17 30 70% In progress
Amination the questionnaire 10/17/17 02/27/18 150 Not started
Collect, clean and analyze data 02/27/18 03/20/18 21 Not started
Write the resource 05/07/18 05/17/18 10 Not started

Gantt Chart

4. References
Bamberg, S. (2014). Psychological contributions to the development of car use reduction interventions. In Handbook of sustainable travel (pp. 131-149). Amsterdam: Springer Netherlands.
Bélanger-Gravel, A., Gauvin, L., Fuller, D., & Drouin, L. (2016). Association of implementation of a public bicycle share program with intention and self-efficacy: The moderating role of socioeconomic status. Journal of Health Psychology, 21(6), 944-953.
Chan, D. K. C., Hardcastle, S., Dimmock, J. A., Lentillon-Kaestner, V., Donovan, R. J., Burgin, M., & Hagger, M. S. (2015). Modal salient belief and social cognitive variables of anti-doping behaviors in sport: examining an extended model of the theory of planned behavior. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 16, 164-174.
Cheung, M. F., & To, W. M. (2017). The influence of the propensity to trust on mobile users’ attitudes toward in-app advertisements: An extension of the theory of planned behavior. Computers in Human Behavior, 76, 102-111.
Conroy, D. E., Yang, C. H., & Maher, J. P. (2014). Behavior change techniques in top-ranked mobile apps for physical activity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 46(6), 649-652.
Davis, R., Campbell, R., Hildon, Z., Hobbs, L., & Michie, S. (2015). Theories of behaviour and behaviour change across the social and behavioural sciences: a scoping review. Health Psychology Review, 9(3), 323-344.
Donald, I. J., Cooper, S. R., & Conchie, S. M. (2014). An extended theory of planned behaviour model of the psychological factors affecting commuters’ transport mode use. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 40, 39-48.
Friman, M., Huck, J., & Olsson, L. E. (2017). Transtheoretical model of change during travel behavior interventions: an integrative review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(6), 581.
Hall, E., Chai, W., Koszewski, W., & Albrecht, J. (2015). Development and validation of a social cognitive theory-based survey for elementary nutrition education program. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 12(1), 47.
Heydari, A., Dashtgard, A., & Moghadam, Z. E. (2014). The effect of Bandura’s social cognitive theory implementation on addiction quitting of clients referred to addiction quitting clinics. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery research, 19(1), 19.
Hoffmann, C., Abraham, C., White, M. P., Ball, S., & Skippon, S. M. (2017). What cognitive mechanisms predict travel mode choice? A systematic review with meta-analysis. Transport Reviews, 1-22.
Hogg, M. A. (2016). Social identity theory. In Understanding Peace and Conflict Through Social Identity Theory (pp. 3-17). London, UK: Springer International Publishing.
Kaplan, S., Manca, F., Nielsen, T. A. S., & Prato, C. G. (2015). Intentions to use bike-sharing for holiday cycling: An application of the Theory of Planned Behavior. Tourism Management, 47, 34-46.
Légal, J. B., Meyer, T., Csillik, A., & Nicolas, P. A. (2016). Goal priming, public transportation habit and travel mode selection: The moderating role of trait mindfulness. Transportation research part F: traffic psychology and behaviour, 38, 47-54.
Lois, D., Moriano, J. A., & Rondinella, G. (2015). Cycle commuting intention: A model based on theory of planned behaviour and social identity. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 32, 101-113.
Lyons, E. J., Lewis, Z. H., Mayrsohn, B. G., & Rowland, J. L. (2014). Behavior change techniques implemented in electronic lifestyle activity monitors: a systematic content analysis. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 16(8).
Mallia, L., Lazuras, L., Violani, C., & Lucidi, F. (2015). Crash risk and aberrant driving behaviors among bus drivers: the role of personality and attitudes towards traffic safety. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 79, 145-151.
Montanaro, E. A., & Bryan, A. D. (2014). Comparing theory-based condom interventions: health belief model versus theory of planned behavior. Health Psychology, 33(10), 1251.
Nordfjærn, T., Şimşekoğlu, Ö., & Rundmo, T. (2014). The role of deliberate planning, car habit and resistance to change in public transportation mode use. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 27, 90-98.
Şimşekoğlu, Ö., Nordfjærn, T., & Rundmo, T. (2015). The role of attitudes, transport priorities, and car use habit for travel mode use and intentions to use public transportation in an urban Norwegian public. Transport Policy, 42, 113-120.