Structure and Aerodynamics of SAAB 340 Series Aircraft

The subjoined tidings conquer embrace referableification on the SAAB 340 train ardorartifice in compliments to its edifice, aerodynamics, convexity, influence and protection throughout its truth (1970’s-2017)

Introduction

The SAAB 340 is a districtal ardorartifice train purposed by the Swedish aeroboundlessness manufactures with the hanker to scrutinize markettalented ardorliners with 30-40 passengers in the 1970’s, peculiarly projectated the SAAB 340A. The flatten was selected to extend with GE turbofoundation engines ascribtalented to their innate fuel arrangement compared to a turbofan or turbojet engines. The SAAB 340B was the superfluous fruit of the SAAB 340A, the newer ardorartifice had advance potent engines, a abundantr foot flatten and the artifices file and select-extempore burden where growthd. The SAAB 340’s ceased evolution in 1998 with stagnation of attention from ardorliners and future profits frugal. The SAAB 340 has pitch-headlongrs renditions the most beggarly entity the 340A, 340B, 340B plus including carbo, corporate and markettalented inplant projects.

Of hush is that peculiarly SAAB AB and Fairchild (an American corporation) co purposed the 340, having the peculiar indicate of the SF340, Fairchild purposed wings, wing spring nacelles and empennage.

The SAAB 340 can be defined as a monoflatten with a tractor engine setup. It has a tricycle rotate layout and a customary foot. The wings are dihedral, reprieved spring, tapered and cantilevered from the fuselage with a matchhither spar. Some of these are advance investigated adown.

It would to-boot be of hush to referableice the SAAB 340B (most beggarly contradictory of SAAB 340’s) has seating naturally coercion 34 passengers where their burden with baggage is 214lbs, a equalt fencing with the ardorartifice premises and statistics conquer be fixed in the postscript.

Image issue coercion saab 340b

Edifice and Reading

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The SAAB 340 reasons beggarly and remarktalented structural constituents during its 40+ year custom, some of the elements which has characterised the ardorartifice is its matchhither spar wing project, ctalented cetify foot flatten and a metal bonded peel. These structural constituents reasond by SAAB AB to obey the file of their ardorartifice whilst to-boot increasing file and payload.

The SAAB 340 reasons a matchhither spar wing which inserted aback the superfluous party which apportions coercion the perplexity of the wing to be frugal compared to a multi spar wing. This is salutary in the reading of a districtal ardorartifice ascribtalented to the frugal in absorb in compliments to the awkwardness in which it is to project and then set-up a multi spar wing. The matchhither spar to-boot apportions coercion advance easy boundlessness in the wing interrupted merely by the ribs which are purposed to possess holes in them to narrow burden and alreprieved coercion possible boundlessness (fuel and coerce manner actuators) in the ardorcraft, intention image 3 in the postscript. The matchhither spar in the tapered wing to-boot apportions coercion a thin trailing party of the aerofoil which can be advance scrutinized in the aerodynamical exception of this tidings.

The SAAB 340 reasons a matchhither element coercion a markettalented ardorliner to reason, a ctalented was established from the summit of the empennage to another, the matchhither project conquer be advance scrutinized bereprieved equaltually the ctalented established on the 340A is a matchhither structural constituent using the cables endeavor to furnish the wing visible structural rectilinearity. The newer 340B and B plus don’t possess the ctalented established, which may be ascribtalented to scantyer and stronger longerons or ribs or emend engineered manners love metal bonding which is reasond to secrete balance 40% of the ardorcrafts visible manners.

The reason of metal bonding in its manner peel narrows burden and growths the structural honor of the ardorcraft. This growthd rectilinearity in the manner apportions coercion the ardorartifice to be purposed with hither inner bracing and esthetic burden. By incorporating the structural benefits of an aluminium bonded peel into the aeroplane, SAAB AB and the Engineers can best maximise the file, inplant boundlessness and payload.

The SAAB 340 is made up of beggarly new ardorartifice calibre and elements, the fuselage and wings are made from aluminium ribs, spars, longerons and stringers which although refertalented matchhither select custom of the inconstancy of aluminium and its structural ability compared to a subject-matter 3% carbon steel or an absorbly composite equipollent. The SAAB AB engineers hereafter had to execute the most of cheaper excluding most cogent esthetics to maintain absorbs reprieveds coercion consumers of the districtal ardorartifice excluding peaceful possess a scanty and fuel causative aeroflatten to execute districtal interval with 30-40 passengers as per the peculiar project specifications.

The structural aspects of the ardorartifice are grave in making the SAAB 340 maximise its boundlessness and payload, the engineers hereafter had to with techniques love endeavor in cables and quickly purposed wings which conquer minimise burden excluding peaceful relinquish with close careering freprieved environing the fuselage and aerofoils as well-behaved-mannered-mannered as can be maintain passengers unendangered and consoled.

Aerodynamics

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The SAAB 340, love integral new ardorcraft, is purposed to minimise haul whilst maximising elate. The SAAB AB ardorartifice reasons quick and mandatory aerodynamics and aerodynamical systems on their ardorcraft; a matchhither foot flatten, parabolic nose and fuselage cem and the wings shaping plus engine integration.

The SAAB 340 has a customary empennage, where the upright stabilizer has span calibre, exaltedlighted in image 4 of the postscript. SAAB AB has incorporated this project in the 340 and their 2000 train ardorcraft. The span stages in the upright stabiliser helps to fashion a advance unwavering and streamlined laminar freprieved edifice environing the stabiliser and future apportions coercion the rudder to be advance cogent in coerceling the ardorfreprieved environing it.

The SAAB 340 has a natural ardorliner title parabolic nose csingle which leads into a rectilinear spherical fuselage (minus the ‘V’ cem wing spring nacelles on the premise of the ardorcraft, shown on image 6). The parabolic nose csingle is greatly causative in having the ardor freprieved actuate environing the ardorartifice outmargin inducing abundant quantities if ardor hindrance and haul. Advance SAAB AB possess slimmed the alteration of the flatten into a subject-matter, natural of new ardorliners in an endeavor to possess the ardor freprieved hereafter extempore the ardorartifice in a reprieved haul streamlined edifice.

The SAAB 340 reasons a tapered, cantilevered, dihedral wing (as referableiceed aggravatehead) and has an equal cantilevered dihedral lifehither stabiliser twain of which possess aerodynamic elements of no winglets, smintegral methodward exceptional apex as well-behaved-mannered-mannered as the wings having been integrated with the engine. The stagnation there of winglets on the SAAB 340 exaltedlights how the engineers possess been talented to narrow the mixing of ardor from the summit and premise of the aerofoil. The accustomed pi of winglets conquer fashion a distribution, refertalented apportioning coercion the exalted and reprieved hurry ardor freprieved to fashion haul and vortexes. SAAB AB possess been talented to sculpt their aerofoils so that the want coercion a winglet has been frugal, a technique reasond by Boeing, on the 747 coercion development.

The SAAB 340 has to-boot integrated their GE turbofoundation engines into the wing project. This is intentionn in image 6 of the muniment distinctly in the face intention, where the engine has been “slotted” into the wing and has apportioned coercion the turbofoundation to be elegantly and aerodynamically causatively positioned to narrow the haul which can happen from having an engine depend extempore the wing.

This facile setup to-boot furnishs the influenceal functionality of the ardorartifice as the retracttalented inaudibleercarriage is to-boot integrated into the engine area. This innovative separation coercion SAAB AB engineers has apportioned coercion the ardorartifice to possess a retracttalented inaudibleercarriage excluding maintain inheritance on a extendway, giving the SAAB 340 aerodynamically causative fscanty and future fuel causative fscanty as-well.

The SAAB 340B+ differs from the 340B ascribtalented to its ample wingtips which apportions coercion it to be advance aerodynamically causative in advance spongy environments and to be talented to select extempore on shorter extendways, this departure in wing project of the contrariant models furnishs the ardorartifice affixed enhancements is verdant and districtal areas where the disappearance environment isn’t chimerical.

Propulsion

The SAAB 340 reasons GE turbofoundation engines with a 4-propeller foundation from Dowty Rotol or Hamilton Sundstrand, differences in sound furnishn in image 5 of the postscript. The SAAB 340B reasons the GE CT7-9B, pictured in image 6 of the postscript, which has an 1870 shp rating [5].

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Image 8 a cutamethod of the CT7-9B turbofoundation [6]

The turbofoundation engine reasond by the 340 is greatly causative engine with exalted file coercion its greatness. The engine can press a acme 470nm with a acme whole burden in growth of 29000lb (select extempore) on inaudibleer 6000lb of fuel. The span engines can push the SAAB 340B and B Plus at 283 knots at an tallness of 25000 feet. Advance referableification on file and payload is in image 9 of the postscript.

The SAAB 340 has reasond contrariant engines balance the years, peculiarly extendning CT7-5A2 turboprops the vary to a CT7-9B led to an growth in the SHP of the engines, advance might, and an growth in fuel aptitude.

Advance so, it is of present hush that the SAAB 340B has had new engine and foundationeller deficiencys with REX district ardorlines in Australia. The deficiency of a Turbofoundation engine on the 23rd of retreat 2017 and a foundationeller onfinaudible extempore mid-fscanty on the 17th of retreat 2017. Equaltually ascribtalented to quick engineering on aid of SAAB AB the span flattens could press on single of the turboprops and execute a unendangered exigency planting. Thus, exaltedlighting twain the aerodynamic project description of the ardorartifice and how the GE CT7-9B engine can peaceful might the ardorartifice with merely half availtalented push.

Influence Exactments

The SAAB 340 exacts a extendway, horde and a coercionm of refuelling at destination/departure. Ascribtalented to the SAAB 340’s project the ardorartifice has been deliberately deceptive with districtal and verdant migration in memory where infraedifice is reprieved and basic future the 340 has built in facilities such as stairs and extra additions coercion the artifice to contend and effort in temperature of the terminals and on extendways made of gravel and sordidness.

The SAAB 340B has extras such as the gravel swarm and longer wingtips which alreprieved coercion it to work in spongyity and ebullition outmargin abundantr extendways or tardy asphalt ardorports [8].

The SAAB 340B exacts, at SL with optimal flaps and at ISA, a extendmethod of 4220ft (1.3km) equaltually at hither optimum environments the extendmethod wanted can be 6690ft (2.02km).

The SAAB 340 does exact 2 pilots and single fscanty partisan can be to-boot secretly of the horde. Die to the smintegral seating collection the SAAB 340 doesn’t possess extent coercion advance than single partisan. The sole scheme is shown bereprieved exaltedlighting where the horde is stationed on a natural 340 layout.

C:UsersnealjAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsINetCacheContent.Word222222.pngImage 10 SAAB 340 layout as planned by SAAB AB [4]

Protection Archives

The SAAB 340 has a rather amiable easily-under archives with merely impure disappearances extent in calamitousities, equaltually this is considered impure eras to pitch-headlongrs. The bereprieved ttalented executes hush of the impure calamitous easily-unders of the SAAB 340 [9]

Calamitous Easily-unders

Year

Airline and Disappearance

Fatalities

Reason

1994

KLM city hopper 433

3

The Engine Stalled and the Ardorartifice struck the premise, the Ardorartifice broke upon impact

1998

Formosa Ardorlines

13

The Ardorartifice has electrical faults and the Horde was disorientated, the flatten clashed in the ocean

2000

Crossardor 498

10

The Ardorartifice banked to elevated causing a twist pitch-headlong and issueed in the ardorartifice clashing

2011

SOL Líneas Aéreas 5428

22

The Ardorartifice whilst disappearance at FL179 began to extract up ice accretion and by the era the flatten descended to FL140 the ice was to server causing the clash

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The SAAB 340 has had prosperously workd coercion pitch-headlongrs years with merely rare calamitous accidents which is a title to the engineering aback the aeroflatten equaltually ardorartifice isn’t outmargin easily-under. Most newly Australian districtal ardorartifice carriers Rex districtal ardorlines has had span engine issues. Superfluously, on the 17th of retreat 2017 the foundationeller demolish extempore the turbofoundation engine, followed by the 23rd where the engine on the starboard margin came up with warnings causing it to plant.

These span new developments showcase how equal in terminal proviso where 50% of the flattens engines possess been rendered reasonhither the pilots can press the districtal ardorliner unendangeredly to an ardorport to plant. Some other referabletalented instances of the SAAB 340B having mid-ardor issues apprehend a new Western Ardor flatten clash at Grand Bahama International Ardorport where subjoined select extempore the flatten skilled issues with its inaudibleercarriage and was coercionced into an exigency planting where the inaudibleercarriage then gave method, the quick project of fuselage sole and turboprop-wing integration apportioned coercion the flatten to ssummit outmargin causing any senior injuries to the passengers [11].

Conclusion

The SAAB 340 train was purposed in the 1970’s as a absorb cogent and pi ardorartifice coercion SAAB AB to scrutinize markettalented aviation, this throw led to single of the most prosperous districtal ardorliners with advance units entity sold than any other during its 40-year custom truth. The structural, aerodynamic and convexity elements although beggarly assign in aviation evince the project of the 340 as a unblended and cogent presser.

The 340 train has basic horde and distrust edifice exactments equaltually this has apportioned coercion it to press from city to city and onto the county outmargin changing the inaudibleercarriage. Coupled with it referring-to susses in conditions of protection the SAAB 340 is a proven relitalented ardorcraft.

https://www.aircraftcovers.com/media/images/14545.jpgAppendix

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Image 3 of SAAB 340B, hush the ribs and spar in the wing [3]

Certified Sound Levels

Dowty Rotol

Hamilton Sundstrand

Fly-Over

78.4

78.2

Side-line

85.9

86.2

Approach

91.8

90.1

Image 5 giving the sound differences betwixt the span foundationeller companies [4]

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https://www.geaviation.com/sites/default/files/thumb-ct7-9.jpg

Weights

lb’s

Flight

Max Select Extempore

29000

Max Cruise Hurry

283 kt

Max Planting

28500

Max Operating Tallness

25000 ft

Max Zero Fuel

26500

Operational Empty

19000

Max Payload

7500

Max Fuel

5690

Airfield Performance

Sea Level

ISA

ISA+10°C

ISA+20°C

Select Extempore Burden (lb)

29000

29000

29000

Select Extempore Interval (ft)

4220

4460

4680

5000 ft aggravatehead MSL

ISA

ISA+10°C

ISA+20°C

Select Extempore Burden (lb)

29000

29000

28180

Select Extempore Interval (ft)

5245

6215

6690

Sector Performance

Sea Level

100nm

200nm

300nm

400nm

500nm

Select of Burden (lb)

27995

38400

28750

29000

29000

Block Fuel (lb)

610

1000

1330

1630

1920

Block Era (min)

34

56

79

103

129

Passengers with Baggage

34

34

34

34

33

5000 ft aggravatehead MSL

100nm

200nm

300nm

400nm

500nm

Select of Burden (lb)

27920

28180

28180

28180

28180

Block Fuel (lb)

595

975

1295

1580

1865

Block Era (min)

33

55

77

101

126

Passengers with Baggage

34

34

32

31

30

Specifications

Payload File

Long File Cruise

Long File Cruise

Length

64 ft 9 in

34 Passengers

445nm

470nm

Height

22 ft 11 in

Acme Payload

370nm

400nm

Wing Span

70 ft 4 in

Propeller premise clearence

1 ft 8 in

Engine

Cargo Door (HxW)

51 in x 53 in

SHP at Sea Level

1870

Sill Apex, Passenger Door

5ft 4 in

Sill Apex, Cargo Door

5 ft 6 in

Bereprieved is the SAAB 340B Equalt fencing, Image 11 [4]

References

[1] https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20140925164339-286946302-saab-340b-aircraft-for-sale, superfluous accessed on 25/03/2017

[2] http://www.flightglobalimages.com/saab-340-cutaway-drawing/print/1569691.html, superfluous accessed on 25/03/2017

[3] http://www.avrosys.nu/aircraft/Transport/282tp100/282Tp100-2.htm, superfluous accessed on 25/03/2017

[4] SAAB 340B/340B Plus muniment from SAAB AB

[5] https://www.geaviation.com/commercial/engines/ct7-engine, superfluous accessed on 25/03/2017

[6] https://au.pinterest.com/pin/387802217889058690/, superfluous accessed on 25/03/2017

[7] https://www.google.com.au/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0ahUKEwihxNHz1fDSAhUIS7wKHTEUBywQjxwIAw&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.aircraftcovers.com%2Fgeneral-aviation-models%2Fsaab%2F340&bvm=bv.150729734,d.dGo&psig=AFQjCNHhr5FhS2aG-2oP9r3t8c9LGrvSmQ&ust=1490497467273858, superfluous accessed on 25/03/2017

[8] https://corporate-air.com.au/aircraft-charter/aircraft-types/saab-340/, superfluous accessed on 25/03/2017

[9] https://aviation-safety.net/database/dblist.php?sorteer=casualties,datekey&kind=%&cat=%&page=1&field=typecode&var=410%, superfluous accessed on 26/03/2017

[10] https://twitter.com/ABCemergency, superfluous accessed on 26/03/2017

[11] http://www.tribune242.com/news/2017/feb/07/western-air-plane-crash-lands-grand-bahama-interna/, superfluous accessed on 26/03/2017

Other sources of referableification reasond excluding refertalented specifically referenced

[12] ‘Aerodynamic and Fscanty Dynamic Simulations of Aileron Characteristics’, by Erkki Soinne Department of Aeronautics Royal Institute of Technology SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden

[13] http://www.airliners.net/aircraft-data/saab-340/347, superfluous accessed on 25/03/2017

[14] http://saab.com/civil-aerospace/Regional-aircraft/regional-aircraft/Saab-340B/, superfluous accessed on 25/03/2017

[15] http://saab.com/civil-aerospace/aircraft-support-solutions/solutions-and-services-for-other-aircraft-types/technical-information-services/, superfluous accessed on 25/03/2017

[16] https://www.planespotters.net/airframe/Saab/340/185/F-GPKG-Crossair-Europe, superfluous accessed on 25/03/2017

[17] http://solutions.3m.com/wps/portal/3M/en_EU/AerospaceSolutions/Home/Applications/StructuralBondingAircraftComponents/, superfluous accessed on 25/03/2017

[18] https://community.infinite-flight.com/t/saab-340a/70306/11, superfluous accessed on 25/03/2017

[19] http://www.airliners.net/forum/viewtopic.php?t=212045, superfluous accessed on 25/03/2017

[20] ‘SAAB Districtal Ardorcraft, Supporting Your Future’ disquisition from SAAB AB website

PART TWO: ardorartifice premises and graphs

Manufacturer

Aircraft

MTOW

max file

no. pass

ref no.

Airbus

A300-600

375900

4050

266

1

A310

361600

4350

220

2

A318

149900

3100

107

3

A319NEO

166400

4200

124

4

A320

172000

3300

150

5

A321

206100

3200

185

6

A330-200

529100

7250

247

7

A330-300

529100

6350

277

8

A330-800NEO

533500

7500

257

9

A330-900NEO

533510

6550

287

10

A340-200

606300

6700

261

11

A340-300

609600

7300

277

12

A340-500

837800

9000

293

13

A340-600

837800

7800

326

14

A350-800

546700

8200

280

15

A350-900

617300

8100

325

16

A350-1000

681000

7950

366

17

A380

1272000

8200

544

18

Boeing

707-120

248000

2607

181

19

717-200

110000

1440

106

20

727-100

170000

2703

131

21

737-700

154500

4400

149

22

737-800

172500

4000

189

23

737-900

187679

3200

215

24

747-8

987000

8000

410

25

757-200

255000

3910

228

26

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