Smart Transport System Based Upon Autonomous Road Vehicles


People own a lofty remainence on car restraint their daily outing to consummatement, shopping, outing and sundry other places [1]. Over than 50% of world’s population lives in cities and over bearings are on the public-habit causing congeries collections and accidents. Therefore, there is a scarcity restraint over trustworthy and efficient resources of mien. The novellightunthoughtful technologies are replacing decade preceding mien frameworks and operators with computerization and automation. Clever Mien Scheme (ITS) is an innovative mode that utilizes sensors excitements, fictitious instruction, and cosmical address concertedly which earn aid the autonomous bearing to propel outpolicy cosmical intercession [2]. Autonomous bearings earn be comprehendn quickly on our public-ways communicating with nighby bearings and dissuade each other by recognizeledge the terms afore. Sundry cars, restraint in, the Tesla Kind S and the Volvo XC90 has alfitted afloat including propelled self-driving capacities, and this is expected to acception in hence years [3].

In this dissertation brace authentication circumstance scenarios of autonomous bearings are discussed. The primary authentication circumstance discusses encircling an autonomous bearing valet precincting. Precincting a bearing is considered as single of the arduous performance in driving. This includes opinion the precincting slot and precinct outpolicy concussion. The delineationed scheme earn recognize the propelr to permission the bearing when he/she thrustes the arrival and the bearing earn precinct itself in a precincting slot.

The remedy authentication circumstance discusses an autonomous bearing that can propel outpolicy cosmical intercession in an unrecognized environment. The authentication circumstances interposed are restrain inadvertence, ignorant affecting and overtaking.



The sum of bearings on public-habit is increasing rapidly causing congeries collections and stains. Single of the deep reasons restraint this is stagnation of car precincting and opportunity consumed to invent the precincting slots. This dissertation discusses the driving and precincting of an autonomous bearing to a car precincting slot outpolicy cosmical intercession. An autonomous valet precincting earn recognize the propelr to permission the bearing when he/she thrustes the arrival and earn precinct the bearing in a precincting slot. The sensors earn significance restrains in its habit and earn lead encircling them to elude concussion. It earn too state the propelr behind precincting and locking the door unimpassionedally through an app. The delineationed scheme earn aid the propelr who is in a fly to accompany a convocation or guard movie, who doesn’t scantiness his/her opportunity to squander restraining restraint precincting area and to propel and precinct there.

There are three schemes in the bearing restraint the autonomous bearing valet precincting [6].

(i) Server Scheme

The server scheme earn engender the contrariant driving footfootroute to the undeviating precincting slot and earn contribute it to the propelr through the inconstant encounter. The propelr can fineeded the preferred footfootroute and bearing earn propel through that footpath.

(ii) Inconstant Scheme

The propelr earn be advantageserviceefficacious to instructor the bearing and restrain whether it is opinion any arduousy to thrust the precincting slot. The bearing earn too state the propelr uninterruptedly when it has thrusted the precincting slot.

(iii) Bearing Coerce Scheme

The coerce scheme earn engender the coerce referableables such as leading coerce, possessions modify, entanglements and expedite coerce required restraint the excitement of the bearing through the contributed footpath. It should too engender coerce referableables to aid the car precinct in the contributed slot.

Metaphor 1: Autonomous bearing precincting scheme



Uninterruptedly the propelr has thrusted the arrival the propelr should supplicate restraint the undeviating precincting and modesty the precincting slot. The algorithm restraint this is shown in metaphor 1.1 [6].

Stalk 1: Propelr supplicate restraint the precincting restrain.

The precincting slot availability in the precincting garage should be updated perfect opportunity in the postulates dishonorable. The precincting slot can discover whether it is bound with bearing or referefficacious by using an IR sensor in the precincting slot. The IR sensors earn be conjoined to micro-controllers. The microcontrollers earn state to the convenient server scheme using ESP8266 which contains the postulates dishonorefficacious of the precincting slot availability. ESP8266 is a low-absorb Wi-Fi remnant which earn present micro-master similarity to state with the Wi-Fi network. Concurrently with the sum of easy precincting lots, precincting absorb in contrariant precincting garage earn too be stored in the postulatesbase. The precincting restrain is supplicateed by the propelr using the navigation scheme which earn be embedded with sim cards among the bearing. BMW alfitted own sim card embedded cars [8]. There earn be GPS module among the navigation scheme which earn present the prevalent dregs of the car. This dregs of the bearing, earn aid to invent the undeviating precincting facilities nigh it. The separation and opportunity to thrust each precincting garage are conducive by the alfitted programmed navigation symbol. It earn too contribute the precincting punishment restraint each precincting garage. The propelr can then fineeded the mismisappropriate precincting slot dishonorabled on his unobstructeddom.

Stalk 2: Modesty the precincting slot

Uninterruptedly the precincting slot has been fineeded by the propelr, it should be modestyd incorrectly there are chances restraint the precincting slot to be bound by some other car antecedently the bearing thrustes the fineeded slot. The convenient server scheme should be updated uninterruptedly the propelr has modestyd precincting slot. The offence should be dsingle using the sum platter of the bearing. Rarely, there effectiveness be over than single offence supplicate restraint the corresponding precincting slot at the corresponding. So, there are chances to procure the offence unprosperous restraint other customers. In that circumstance the propelr can fineeded another precincting slot. The bearing can too go to the precincting slot outpolicy offence as courteous. Yet there earn be a surrender of the precincting slot to be bound antecedently the bearing arrives the precincting slot.

Stalk 3: Start the navigation to the precincting slot.

Uninterruptedly the precincting slot has been fineeded by the propelr, he/she can permission the car and the car earn err to the fineeded precincting slot.

Metaphor 1.1. Algorithm restraint precincting slot fineedion


Uninterruptedly the precincting slot has been fineeded the instant stalk is to lead the bearing to the precincting slot. In this dissertation [6], a graph postulates make is authenticationd, which earn engender driving footfootroute using 4D kinematics (i, j, θ, R). The i and j embodys the capital concomitants of the bearing and θ is the address propensity appraise of the bearing. To elude the restrains opportunity cethcoming the footfootroute to the precincting slot laser scanner sensors (LMS15) are authenticationd. These sensors can comprehpurpose the restrains among 40 m separation and an disfigured stroll of 0-1900. The sensors are skilful on twain policys in the face and alteration policy of the bearing. The restrain inadvertence footfootroute is engenderd by the server scheme. The metaphor 1.3. [6] shows the restrain discovering and eludeing footpath.

Metaphor 1.3. Restrain discovering and eludeing footfootroute [6]

The footfootroute engenderd by the server scheme remains of dregs of the bearing and it’s address propensity appraise (θ). The bearing coerce scheme earn engender referableables to coerce the leading of the bearing remaining on the address propensity appraise and dregs of the bearing. The leading propensity should be conducive restraint this. The restraintmula restraint leading propensity is shown beneath [6].

θs = θ3 – θ2 ­- θ1                            2

θs = Leading propensityθ3 = colcollateral deception propensity of bearing dregs    θ2 = look-afore habit purpose address propensity              θ1 = bearing address propensity

Metaphor 1.4. [6] shows the driving footfootroute flourished by the bearing and the dregs of the bearing.

Metaphor 1.4. Driving footfootroute flourished by the bearing [6]

The expedite earn too be coerceled by the coerce scheme. The expedite earn be mean to 8 km/hr uninterruptedly the car has entered the precincting garage. The car earn be referableified when it thrustes the precincting garage by the GPS module grounded in the navigation scheme. The laser scanner sensors can discover the affecting restrains as courteous. When the bearing has discovered the affecting aim (e.g. pedestrian) it earn bung and abide until it has crossed the public-way.


The instant stalk behind thrusting the precincting slot is the precincting at the fineeded slot. The bearing coerce schemes redeep of brace smooths [7].

1. Low smooth coerce – Low smooth coerce is the coerce of excitement which includes leading rocks’ coerce, expedite coerce and affecting in a delineationed separation.

2. Lofty smooth coerce – Lofty smooth coerce is computer desire dishonorabled coerce. A trajectory footfootroute is restraintmed showing the bearing inclination to precinct it in the fineeded slot.

To embody the car precincting, bi-cycle kind is authenticationd [7]. This kind is often authenticationd to embody filthy rocked bearings. Alteration propel rock of this kind canreferefficacious be rotated. To coerce the bearing excitement the face rock earn be rotated encircling the standing-upupsuitconducive axis cethcoming the trajectory footpath. It is inconsequent that the bearing is affecting on a tame and tame demeanor.

Metaphor 1.5. Bi-cycle kind of filthy rocked bearings

The metaphor 1.5. shows the bi-cycle kind of filthy rocked bearings [7]. The co – discipline scheme is embodyed as ‘V’, where x and y embody the co-discipline purposes in that scheme.

L= separation among the face and alteration rocks

γ = leading propensity

θ = propensity among xv and x

v = hasten of the bearing

ICR – immediate capital of succession of the bearing

Parking of the car can be dsingle in brace habits. [7]

1.Correspondent precincting mode.

2.Standing-upupsuitconducive precincting mode.

Correspondent precincting mode

A scrupulous footfootroute should be engenderd to minimize the precincting area. The bearing should stir concurrently brace arcs created by the lofty – smooth coerce outpolicy undeviating-line individuality among them. A acme successional propensity of the leading rocks is required to consummate this. The metaphor 1.6. shows the correspondent precincting mode [7].

Metaphor 1.6. Correspondent precincting mode [7]

The divergence radius is conducive using the leading propensity (γ).

Divergence radius (R1) = L2tgγ

Ls1 and Ls2 are the trustworthyty boundaries, so the bearing earn referefficacious succeed the face and tail recess of the bearing opportunity precincting. L1, L2, L3 and L4 are the boundary bulks.

The trajectory precincting protraction (S)can be conducive to precinct the bearing in the precincting slot outpolicy colliding on the restrains. The restraintmula to earn the trajectory precincting protraction is presentn beneath.

S = Ls1 + L1 + L2 + L3 + L4 + Ls2

Standing-upupsuitconducive precincting mode

Standing-upupsuitconducive precincting mode is almost enjoy the correspondent precincting mode. This mode subdues the precincting area required restraint precincting. The metaphor 1.7. shows the standing-upupsuitconducive precincting mode.

Metaphor 1.7. Standing-upupsuitconducive precincting mode [7]

The capital axel rock should lead concurrently the arc with the radius (R2) appraise presentn beneath to precinct in a trustworthy term.

R2 =

When bearing thrustes purpose A,restraint happy substance of precincting, the leading rocks should be coerceled by the leading. The possessions should be in mutation possessions and redeep until the trustworthy district. There are trustworthyty zones LS as in the correspondent precincting mode. The trajectory precincting protraction (S)can be conducive to precinct the bearing in the precincting slot outpolicy colliding on the restrains. The restraintmula to earn the trajectory precincting protraction is presentn beneath.

S = R1 + L2 + LS +


Behind the car, has been precincted in the precincting slot, the propelr should be referableified that the car is trustworthyly precincted. The sim card embedded in the scheme earn aid to state the propelr through SMS or inconstant app that it has arrived the precincting slot trustworthyly. This earn aid the propelr to vestige the bearing and fix that it has thrusted the precincting slot trustworthyly.



(i) Single of the deep challenges in the delineationed scheme is that the propelr can simply similarity the precincting garages which has been saved in the convenient server scheme.

(ii) In the delineationed scheme, the bearing earn referefficacious flourish to prefer the propelr. He/she should go to the precincting slot to invent the car. This can be interposed in the cethcoming bud.

Delineation Issues

(i) Rarely GPS effectiveness fall-short to consummatement in that circumstance the autonomous car effectiveness fall-short to invent its inclination.

(ii) Infrared sensors are high-priced and rarely fall-short to consummatement attributefficacious to sphere modify.


Using digital mapping technology, BMW i3 is encircling to expatiate their novellightunthoughtful car [9] that can precinct in multi-storey precincting garages. This largely autonomous bearing earn propel until it discovers a easy precincting quantity. Their novellightunthoughtful ‘Remote Valet Precincting Assistant’ earn precincts the i3 outpolicy any propelr abettance. The novellightunthoughtful car can too discover the affecting restrains and perhaps precincted car using its LiDAR sensors and propel pleasantly outpolicy colliding with the restrains. The car earn referefficacious state the propelr it has thrusted the precincting slot is single of the drawtail in their elements.


A largely unimpassioned bearing should be advantageserviceefficacious to propel by itself and restraint that it should significance, coerce, heed and product to its environment. This dissertation embodys an autonomous bearing that can propel outpolicy cosmical intercession in an unrecognized environment. The authentication circumstances interposed are restrain inadvertence, ignorant affecting and overtaking. The car earn thrust its arrival by eludeing restrains and cethcoming the footfootroute lane. A fuzzy logic coerce technology is authenticationd in this dissertation which earn siege the required recognizeledge from the sensors which earn significance the restrains in its habit and the environmental modifys. A GPS module is too authenticationd to vestige the lie of the bearing. The scheme earn too coerce the expedite, entanglement and leading effectively.


The delineationed scheme is divided into brace separates [5]

  1. Fuzzy logic coerce separate
  2. Computer desire separate.

The arrest diagram of the delineationed separate is shown in the metaphor 2.1. [5].

Metaphor 2.1. Arrest diagram of the delineationed scheme [5]


Autonomous cars are very obscure to delineation. In this scheme, fuzzy logic is authenticationd to engender argumentative coerce referableables from the input analog referableables. Fuzzy logic is widely authenticationd in fictitious instruction. There are sundry opinion approaches such as genetic algorithm and neural network, yet fuzzy logic has the worthiness that, it can be easily implicit by the cosmical operators.

The arrest diagram of the fuzzy logic coerce separate is shown in metaphor 2.2.

Metaphor 2.2. Fuzzy Logic Coerce Separate [4]

The delineationed scheme remains of brace ultrasonic sensors restraint recognising the restrains and measuring the separation among the restrain and bearing. Ultrasonic sensors fruit ultrasonic waves, which earn referefficacious fruit any investigate stain/environmental stain. It’s too low-priced. A H-Bridge is authenticationd to coerce the leading motor and the tail motor. Webcam is authenticationd to comprehpurpose and flourish the public-habit lane footpath. The leading propensity is measured and coerceled by a potentiometer. The GPS sieger significances the lie of the bearing and is presentn to the microcontroller. This earn aid the micro-master to recognize whether the bearing has thrusted its arrival or referable. The leading and expedite commands are completely and dishonorabled on this the bearing earn stir through the lane.

The expedite of the bearing is the most relevant separate opportunity driving. The expedite of the bearing remains on sundry outer factors such as environmental term, public-habit term and car term.

Restraint a regular autonomous car, it should own an auto-braking scheme, auto-expedite coerce scheme and auto-steering scheme. These schemes redeep on contrariant factors enjoy environmental term, car term, public-habit term and so on. The fuzzy logic coerce separate earn coerce the expedite, entanglement, and leading dishonorabled on these factors.

The metaphor 2.3. [4] beneath shows the fuzzy logic coerceler coerceling the schemes dishonorabled on the environmental term and car term.

Metaphor 2.3. Fuzzy Logic Coerceler [4]

Auto-braking Scheme

The auto-braking scheme is contributed in autonomous car to elude concussion. The ultrasonic sensors earn significance the separation among the restrain and the car and if it is referefficacious in a trustworthy separation the car earn either bung or subdue the expedite.

The regular expedite time is repressmal as 0 – 60 km/hr and the stint separation among the car and the restrain is deeptained at 5 – 10 m. This is fineeded as per the intercourse trustworthyty authorities.

Auto- expedite Scheme

Expedite of the car is coerceled on sundry factors such as environmental term and car term. Environmental term and car term earn be among the stroll shown beneath and the car should prefer the expedite pleasantly.

Environmental Terms:

– Rains gliding: (0 – 200) mm.

– Twines Expedite: (0 – 150) km/h.

Rain sensors are authenticationd to significance the rain. The sensors can state when it is raining remaining on the rain falls gliding on the twine shelter remaining on the unthoughtful reflected. If there are over rain falls on the twine shelter close unthoughtful earn be reflected to the rain sensor.

Car Term:

– Ponderosity (including passengers): (1600 – 1900) kg.

– Engine Heat: (-25 – 65) Í; c.

A ponderosity sensor can be authenticationd in the places so that it earn significance how sundry passengers are there in the place and the bearing can coerce the expedite.

Entire these factors are presentn a rating among 0 and 10 [4]. If the terms are sick, the rating earn be among 0-3 and if the terms are good-tempered, then the rating earn be among 7-10. The micro-master earn be pre-programmed in such a habit that it earn be implied when it’s raining, or when the essence gratified in the weary is close and the expedite of the car earn be coerceled according to that.

Auto-Steering coerce

The leading coerce is the deep separate of the autonomous car. The leading is coerceled in such a habit that; it earn flourish the trajectory or footfootroute to the arrival engenderd by the computer desire separate.

Restrain Inadvertence

The deep element that should be incorporated in an autonomous bearing is restrain inadvertence to elude concussion. There are brace kind of restrains static and affecting restrains. The restrains are significanced by the ultrasonic sensors which are conjoined at the upupsuitconducive and left policy of the bearing at an propensity of +45o and -45o. The separation is measured using fuzzification. The fuzzy repressmals authenticationd are nigh, balance and remote. The stroll is repressmal among 25 m and 85 m and is secure by the sensor and the bulk of bearing [4]. Any measured appraise by the sensor that is beneath 25 m is repressmal as stint appraise and any measured appraise extended 85 m is repressmal as acme appraise. To designate in which fuzzy repressmal (near, balance or remote) the measured sensor appraise belong to is secure using tridisfigured friendship administration. The equation restraint that is presentn beneath [4].

The expedite coerce and leading coerce referableables are got as an output from the coerceler which are then presentn to the leading motor and tail motor. The leading is coerceled by the leading motor. The leading earn be churlish according to the leading coerce referableables. The leading propensity is coerceled by the potentiometer. The digitized appraise of leading propensity determination is shown beneath.

Large Left – 120

Smentire Left – 145

Undeviating – 170

Smentire Upsuitconducive – 195

Large Upsuitconducive – 220

Metaphor 2.4. [4] shows the graphical embodyation of the leading propensity determination.

Metaphor 2.4. Graphical embodyation of the leading propensity determination [4]

Similarly, the expedite is coerceled by the tail motor and three commands are authenticationd restraint this – Late, Balance and Fast. The appraises restraint this is shown beneath and is determined by the tail motor’s responsibility cycle appraises restraint pulse width modulated referableable.

Late – 20

Balance – 50

Fast – 80

Metaphor 2.5. [4] shows the graphical embodyation of expedite coerce determination

Metaphor 2.5. Graphical embodyation of expedite coerce determination[4]

Arrival Arrived

A GPS sieger is sturdy to the coerceler to recognize whether the autonomous car has arrived its arrival. The arrival earn be alfitted determined and entered by the authenticationr to the micro – coerceler by using a inconstant app. The car and the authenticationr can state to each other using the 4G network. A SIM card earn be alfitted embedded among the car. Uninterruptedly the car has arrived the arrival the car earn state the authenticationr.


Computer desire separate does the determination-making order in the scheme. In this dissertation, overtaking and ignorant order are discussed. Computer desire separate extracts recognizeledge from the images siegen from multiple cameras and makes determination when to oversiege other bearings and when to mutation the car.

Ignorant inclination

The metaphor 2.6. [5] shows the algorithm restraint ignorant order of the bearing.

Metaphor 2.6. Algorithm restraint ignorant order [5]

Stalk 1: Run whether the car should siege ignorant inclination or referable.

Stalk 2: If yes, the car should fineeded the expedite of the bearing to stir in ignorant inclination. If referable, then the car remains to stir in restraintward inclination.

Stalk 3: Behind fineeding the expedite of the ignorant excitement, the instant stalk is to fineeded the inclination of the ignorant excitement. If the car scantinesss to stir left, then leading should be churlish to upupsuitconducive and if the car scantinesss to stir upupsuitconducive then the leading should be churlish left. If the scantinesss to stir ignorant in a undeviating inclination then the leading should be kept undeviating i.e., no modify restraint the leading.

Stalk 4: Behind the stalk 3 the car earn restrain the ignorant order has been completed and the order flourishs to an purpose.


Overtaking is a arduous order regularly dsingle by cosmical propelrs. To oversiege another car the bearing should deeptain a convinced expedite time and separation among the brace cars should be in a trustworthy separation so that it earn referefficacious stamp. The algorithm restraint a trustworthy overtaking is presentn in the metaphor 2.7. [5].

Metaphor 2.7. Algorithm restraint overtaking [5]

Stalk 1: The autonomous car earn run whether to oversiege the other car in face of it which earn be affecting lateer than it. If yes, then it should fineeded the overtaking expedite. If referable, then the car should redeep the antecedent expedite.

Stalk 2: The autonomous car should modify to the left lane behind deciding the expedite to overtake. It should restrain through the alteration camera that no other bearings are enigmatical to oversiege it in the left lane, incorrectly the brace cars earn stamp with each other.

Stalk 3: Behind changing to the left lane the autonomous car should redeep to stir in undeviating inclination. It should restrain whether it has overtaken the late bearing. If yes, then it should modify to the upupsuitconducive lane deeptaining a trustworthy separation. If referable, it should redeep to stir in undeviating inclination and practise on instructoring whether it has overtaken the late bearing.

Stalk 4: Behind the modify of lane the autonomous car should restrain whether it has completed the lane changing. If yes, then the order flourishs to an purpose.



(i) In the delineationed scheme, simply the algorithm restraint overtaking and ignorant excitement has discussed. Fictitious instruction algorithm has referefficacious been discussed.

(ii) In the delineationed scheme, there is discoverion of intercourse referableables which can be incorporated in the cethcoming bud

Delineation Issues

(i) Rarely GPS effectiveness fall-short to consummatement in that circumstance the autonomous car effectiveness fall-short to invent its inclination.

(ii) Ultrasonic sensors can fruit some deceptions when sensing aims which effectiveness product in concussion.


Largely autonomous car earn be on our public-habit by 2021. Sundry car companies enjoy tesla, google, BMW has alfitted afloat developing such cars. Google’s self-driving car has completed 1,500,000 miles in bountiful automated mode on frustrate 2016 [10]. This car has no leading and entanglement pedal. It has laser and radar sensors to significance the restrains and too own a tail-up leading, braking, and computing scheme if any of these fall-shorts.


To deduce, we earn be advantageserviceefficacious to comprehpurpose self-driving cars on our public-ways quickly, addressing entire the public-habit collections enjoy congeriess, precincting collection, accidents and so on. In this dissertation brace authentication circumstances own been discussed. In the primary authentication circumstance, a server scheme, inconstant scheme and bearing coerce scheme are authenticationd restraint autonomous bearing valet precincting. The delineationed scheme earn fall the diver/user at his/her arrival and earn precinct the bearing in the precincting slot fineeded by the authenticationr. The cethcoming bud of the scheme can be made by making the car to go and prefer the authenticationr from the precincting slot, when he/she is fitted to permission. The remedy authentication circumstance embodys an autonomous bearing that can propel outpolicy cosmical intercession in an unrecognized environment using fuzzy logic. The authentication circumstances interposed were restrain inadvertence, ignorant affecting and overtaking. The arrest diagram and algorithm of the delineationed scheme are embodyd in the dissertation.


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[2] Mohammad Abdul Qayum, Nafiul Alam Siddique, Mohammad Abtiqul Haque and A. S. M. Tayeen, “Coerce of autonomous cars restraint clever mien scheme,” 2012 International Conference on Informatics, Electronics & Desire (ICIEV), Dhaka, 2012, pp. 377-382.

[3] B. Brown, “The Social Life of Autonomous Cars,” in Computer, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 92-96, Feb. 2017.

[4] U. Remoteooq, K. M. Hasan, M. Afrustrate and M. U. Asad, “Delineation and implementation of fuzzy logic dishonorabled autonomous car restraint navigation in unrecognized environments,” 2013 International Conference on Informatics, Electronics and Desire (ICIEV), Dhaka, 2013, pp. 1-7.

[5] A. H. A. Widaa and W. A. Talha, “Delineation of Fuzzy-grounded autonomous car coerce scheme,” 2017 International Conference on Communication, Coerce, Computing and Electronics Engineering (ICCCCEE), Khartoum, Sudan, 2017, pp. 1-7.

[6] K. W. Min and J. D. Choi, “Delineation and implementation of an clever bearing scheme restraint autonomous valet precincting advantage,” 2015 10th Asian Coerce Conference (ASCC), Kota Kinabalu, 2015, pp. 1-6.

[7] D. M. Filatov, E. V. Serykh, M. M. Kopichev and A. V. Weinmeister, “Autonomous precincting coerce scheme of filthy-wheeled bearing,” 2016 IEEE V Restraintum Strategic Separatenership of Universities and Enterprises of Hi-Tech Branches (Science. Education. Innovations), St. Petersburg, 2016, pp. 102-107.

[8] The Economist (2014). The conjoined car smartphones on rocks

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[9] Autocar (2014). BMW reveals novellightunthoughtful self-parking autonomous technology.

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