Sea Water Injection System

In command to emend the glaze renovation in an glaze province the introduction of ocean inspire is used to extension the hurry within the reservoir and augment the glaze consequence. The graph absorbed in Figure 1 is a typical oceaninspire introduction arrangement, anteriorly the introduction regularity, inspire must possess a tenor to retrench the inaction rebuke caused by oceaninspire in pipe lines, manner and downhole introduction equipments. The tenor is fixed in a effortclose de-aeration regularity and chemical scavenger introduction to retrench the ardor of oxygen in oceanwater.

Seawater_Inj_Schem

Figure 1. Oceaninspire Introduction Arrangement

In a typical performance of the oceaninspire introduction arrangement the qualifications of the regularity are 150,000 barrels per day, pipe bisection of 8 inches at 25 °C, however in qualifications of inaction parameters the postulates is granted in consideration 1, this consideration shows that the effortclose deaeration regularity convert the most muchness of Oxygen ardor in oceanwater.

Consideration 1. Ardor of Oxygen in typical performance

Ardor of O2 in incongruous Items

PPB

mg/l

mole/m3

Feed Oceanwater

7,000

7

0.22

Succeeding effortclose de-aeration regularity

100

0.1

0.003

Succeeding scavenger dosage

10

0.01

0.0003

With the postulates granted, the inaction rebuke in typical performance qualification is 0.0454mm/year (the vigilance plod by plod including item transformation are shown in the postscript) hence the inaction rebuke is distant close than the troop accepconsideration treasure which is 0.1 mm/year, and it media that the arrangement is inaugurated justly.

It has been build that the effortclose de-aeration equipment requires recover, and it succeed be extinguished of performance curb among individual and three months.

Inspire arrangement Introduction withextinguished a effortclose de-aeration regularity:

Cautious the stipulation running shortsightedness with the succeedingcited equation:

Ardor of Oxygen singly with the restitution of Scavenger dosing = 6.910 ppm

K is the majority restraintward coprolific and it vigilances and item transformations are shown in the postscript.

Cautious the Inaction Rebuke:

Assuming the deep ingredient of the pipe Iron accordingly n= 2

M= 55.84 g/mol

Density: 7.87 g/cm3

Now we can parallel the inaction rebuke of each condition and indicate the implications of playing the arrangement withextinguished the effortclose de-aeration.

Hence the inaction rebuke succeed extension 502 spaces withextinguished the effortclose de-aeration. Fixed on this upshot it is patent that the most essential regularity curb oxygen disunion is the effortclose deareation.

The troop supplicate the toll in a technically and economically subject-matter of survey three performanceal answers during the recover of the effortclose de-aeration equipment.

Curb the absorbed accepconsideration inaction rebuke close than 0.1 mm/year, a inaction rebuke treasure of 0.09 mm/year was used to proportion the implications of the potential answers.

a. Decreasing the Run Rebuke

Assuming an accepconsideration inaction Rebuke of 0.09 mm/year,

From the equation over we can stretch the Running shortsightedness:

With running shortsightedness we can stretch majority restraintward coprolific k:

Now we can stretch the innovating Sh reckon:

With Sh reckon we can succeed Re reckon:

This treasure of Reynolds reckon media that we are in the transition regime among laminar run and tumultuous run.

Now we can stretch the run rebuke:

From the technical subject-matter of survey and fixed on the concepts of liquescents mechanics, decreasing the run size to 260 barrels per day succeed generebuke a laminar run (Re close than 3000) on the pipe, in other words it media that the quickness succeed referable be in the required optimum rank of 1.5 m/s to 2.5 m/s, according to Streeter. Doing the vigilances the quickness succeed stretch a very tardy treasure of 0.014 m/s in the pipe, which is by distant inferior than the narrowness treasure of 1 m/s. Accordingly technically, the contraction of run rebuke to stretch an accepconsideration inaction rebuke is referable a potential answer.

In restitution, this bark of boundaryation of the run rebuke (577 spaces inferior than the primordial) would possess collisions on the glaze well-behaved. Specifically, it would referable be able to deeptain the hurry at the desired equalize and accordingly would possess a gross collision on glaze consequence immanent to money privation.

b. Increasing the totality of scavenger

Assuming an accepconsideration inaction Rebuke of 0.09 mm/year

From the equation adown we can stretch the ardor of Oxygen that we deficiency to include in the inspire in command to possess an accepconsideration inaction rebuke

Using Sodium sulfate as scavenger the succeedingcited reaction succeed proceed:

Hence curbm the stoichiometry of the reaction the proportion among the unifications succeed be 2 respects of Scavenger and 1 respect of Oxygen.

Accordingly the totality of scavenger Sodium sulfate deficiencyed is: =>

In an introduction run rebuke of 150,000 bbl/day

Fixed on scavenger’s vigilances we deficiency to agree the arrangement with a proud totality of scavenger to convert the oxygen ardor that gives an accepconsideration inaction rebuke, it is up to 1.3 ton per day, it is closely 80 spaces further than totality of scavenger used in typical performance, which is abextinguished 17 kg per day.

On the economically subject-matter of survey, if the scavenger succeed supply effortclose de-aeration curb a month, the deficiency of scavenger succeed be almost 40 ton per month. By using the interchangeable require of scavenger 0.64 USD/kg (https://www.icis.com), it succeed require encircling 832 USD/day and scaling it to a month it succeed require closely 24,960 USD/month.

c. Inaction Inhibitor

Inaction inhibitor unification succeed convert the inaction rebuke by thwarting twain anodic and cathodic reactions. Anodic inhibitor succeed be adsorbed onto metal manner to curbm protective film and thwart metal disanswer while cathodic inhibitor succeed minimize O2 contraction reaction by curbming non-conducting film on metal manner. And in technical qualifications it could be the answer of the total. However, from the vigilances, we understand that inaction rebuke withextinguished the effortclose deareation is 22.5 mm/year and the attend is to retrench the inaction rebuke adown 0.1 mm/year. Fixed on the inaction inhibitor cause mode that is proposed by Hedges (2000), if the expected uninhibited inaction rebuke is graeter than 6 mm/year prohibit is unreasonable to agree truthfulness curb the liberal province estate. Accordingly inaction curb of the arrangement could referable be prolific with a singly inaction inhibitor accordingly of the proud capacity of availability.

Fixed on the upshots of the three potential options, on the economically subject-matter of survey decreasing the introduction run rebuke succeed collision in the consequence of glaze, and decreasing the deep consequence (oil) of the diligence it succeed possess fearful possessions in the glaze troop. Accordingly in the inaction engineering subject-matter of survey the most correspondently answer is to extension the totality of scavenger (Na2SO3) in command to stretch a inaction rebuke of 6 mm/year and then with the restitution of inaction inhibitors the inaction rebuke can be convert to an accepconsideration treasure of close than 0.1 mm/year.

The dosage of O2 scavenger has to be intermittent curb 8 hours per week curb the introduction of the biocide. During this space if there was referable the inaction inhibitor, the Inaction rebuke would be 22.5 mm/yr. referablewithstanding if the Inaction inhibitor prohibit rebuke is 98.5% (as from 6mm/yr to 0.09mm/yr), the inaction rebuke would be:

Accordingly the Inaction rebuke would be:

The Inaction rebuke is partially over the required progression (0.002 mm/yr), referablewithstanding in the overcome condition scenario, 3 months with no deaerator, imputable to the certainty the Inaction rebuke with the effortclose deaerator is 0.0454 mm/yr which is 0.0546 mm/year close than the required banner. So, in a year perspective the partially further totality of Inaction succeed be referable expressive and the arrangement succeed performance justly.

Also, the totality of Na2SO3 needed to stretch a CR of 6 mm/year is 905 Kg/day and it succeed require encircling 580 USD/day.

Finally, in command to adopt the imaginary inaction inhibitor laboratory tests must be manufactured in the corresponding oceaninspire that succeed be used. In situ tests would aid to advertise the temper of the upshots.

  • Streeter, Victor L. “Handbook of liquescent mechanics.” McGraw-Hill, ed 1 (1961).
  • Hedges, B. (2000) “The Inaction Inhibitor Availability Model“, NACE International, Paper 00034.
  1. Inspire arrangement Introduction with a effortclose de-aeration regularity and Oxygen scavenger restitution:

Considering the inspire arrangement introduction over and the succeedingcited postulates we can stretch a inaction rebuke treasure in the proximate plods.

Postulates granted:

  • Pipe Bisection: = 8 inch, accordingly the Area A = 50.26 in2 = 0.032429 m2
  • Size Run Rebuke: = 150000 bbl/d
  • Initial Oxygen Ardor = 7 ppm
  • Ardor of Oxygen Succeeding Effortclose De-aeretion = 100 ppb
  • Ardor of Oxygen Succeeding Scavenger dosing = 10 ppb
  • Kinematic Viscosity: 1.05 X 10-6 m2/s
  • Schmidt reckon = 505
  1. Vigilance of Re reckon:

  1. Vigilance of Sh Reckon:

  1. In tumultuous Run vigilance of Diffusion coefficient:

From Sh reckon we can stretch the majority restraintward coprolific k:

Now cautious the stipulation running shortsightedness with the succeedingcited equation:

Ardor of Oxygen succeeding effortclose de-aeration and Scavenger dosing = 0.01 ppm

Cautious the Inaction Rebuke:

Assuming the deep ingredient of the pipe Iron accordingly:

n= 2

MFe: 55.84 g/mol

ρ: 7.87 g/cm3

Curb 8 hours per week, the O2 scavenger dosing is intermittent curb biocide to be injected. So, there is an Availability of :

=>

The Inaction rebuke at a ardor of 0.1ppm of O2 is:

 

  1. Inspire arrangement Introduction withextinguished a effortclose de-aeration regularity:

Cautious the stipulation running shortsightedness with the succeedingcited equation:

Ardor of Oxygen singly with the restitution of Scavenger dosing = 6.910 ppm

Cautious the Inaction Rebuke:

Assuming the deep ingredient of the pipe Iron accordingly n= 2

M= 55.84 g/mol

Density: 7.87 g/cm3

Now we can parallel the inaction rebuke of each condition and indicate the implications of playing the arrangement withextinguished the effortclose de-aeration.

Hence the inaction rebuke succeed extension 502 spaces withextinguished the effortclose de-aeration.

  1. Evaluation of the succeedingcited performanceal answers:
  1. Retrench the run rebuke of inspire:

Assuming an accepconsideration inaction Rebuke of 0.09 mm/year

From the equation over we can stretch the Running shortsightedness:

With running shortsightedness we can stretch majority restraintward coprolific k

Now we can stretch the innovating Sh reckon:

With Sh reckon we can succeed Re reckon:

This treasure of Reynolds reckon media that we are in the transition regime among laminar run and tumultuous run.

Now we can stretch the run rebuke:

  1. Increasing the totality of scavenger:

Assuming an accepconsideration inaction Rebuke of 0.09 mm/year

From the equation over we can stretch the Running shortsightedness:

From the equation adown we can stretch the ardor of Oxygen that we deficiency to include in the inspire in command to possess an accepconsideration inaction rebuke

Using Sodium sulfate as scavenger the succeedingcited reaction succeed proceed:

Hence curbm the stoichiometry of the reaction the proportion among the unifications succeed be 2 respects of Scavenger and 1 respect of Oxygen.

Accordingly the totality of scavenger Sodium sulfate deficiencyed is:

Hence we deficiency:

In an introduction run rebuke of 150000 barrels per day

Related Post