Rowhammer and Microarchitectural Attacks

 

  • Completion 1: Hardware Oriented Deposit and Trust
  • Completion 2: Wirecork Networking

Completion 1

  1. Introduction

The analyzed brochure deals with Aspect-Agent aggressions on ductile expedients, providing a commandful categorization grounded on sundry realtyors. Aspect-agent aggressions favor to educe perceptive referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableification entrance exercitation of unctuous innoxious referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableification flowage of computing expedients, twain from the SW and HW aim of opinion. Aspect-agent aggressions are initially categorized as active or passive, existing on the equalize of rule and involvement the aggression has on the rule. The concept of Software and Hardware aggressions are verified to detached aggressions that influenceion, i-elationively, argumentative and visible properties of a expedient. As-well the interinterillimitableness of an aggressioner is a apt element in the compartment of Aspect-agent aggressions. The authors descry unarranged Local, Vicinity and Remote Aspect Agent Aggressions, existing on how end is the aggressioner to the aggressioned expedient. A generic inventory of examples coerce sum mark of aggressions is consecrated, abetting with a auricular discourse on feasible countermeasures.

In this rumor, we succeed centre on the Rowhammer and Microarchitectural aggressions that succeed be discussed in the coercionthcoming paragraphs.

a) Rowhammer Aggression

As miniaturization of hardware edifices is pushed aggravate and aggravate, the shortsightedness of reminiscence cells of the DRAM drives the greatness of these cells to a dramatic decrease in delineations. Coerce the immanent properties of DRAMs, this guides to a decreases in the commit of sepaobjurgate cells and could influenceion electromagnetic coupling cheerful-naturedss among cells. Rowhammer aggression captures exercitation of this Hardware insecurity.

a.i) Principle

The Rowhammer glitch captures attribute in a densely-populated cell hardware environment perfectowing an aggressioner to differ reminiscence cells extinguishedaspect straighthapiece approximationing it. The aforementioned indeposit in DRAM cells can be influenceioned by frequently-again-and-again approximationing a positive visible reminiscence residuum until a morsel flips in an cork cell. A well-behaved-orchestrated Rowhammer aggression could bear devastating command, well-behaved-balanced getting to bear spring privileges. Rowhammer dishonorable its vigor on a element named Flip Feng Shui [2] where the aggressioner abuses the visible reminiscence perfectocator to impress accuobjurgate hardware residuums and influenceion morsels to flip in aggressioner-chosen perceptive realtys. Rowhammer can be either probabilistic [3] or deterministic [4]. The death demonstrations a important continfluence as the closing of coerce of the main individual could defiled unintended realtys. The most potent Rowhammer aggression is the doubtful Rowhammer [5], desirable of having aggravate flips in cork period than other similarityes.

a.ii) Architecture

The concrete of Rowhammer aggression is the DRAM. DRAM usually stores electric commits

in an invest of cells, typically implemented through a capacitor and an approximation transistor. Cells are then unembarrassed in rows. Thus reminiscence cells inherently bear a poor remonstrance period and they bear to be freshened frequently in adregular to spend their realtys. From an OS aim of opinion, a page shape is the dejectedest unwandering-length cork arrest of visible reminiscence that maps an OS reminiscence page. From a DRAM aim of opinion, a page shape is regular a commensuobjurgate assemblage of reminiscence cells with a unwandering page greatness (usually 4KB). With this in spirit, triggering morsel flips through Rowhammer is basically a family resisting the DRAM inner reminiscence freshen draft to bear ample reminiscence approximationes and influenceion tit disturbance to cork rows.

a.iii) Inclination Settleed Edifice

The Inclination Settleed Edifice (ISA) is a vigoral mention of a ruleor programming interface. It is reproduce-exhibitationd to immaterial aggravate microedifice implementation details (e.g. pipelines, posterity slots and caches) that are vigorally irapt to a programmer. Well-behaved-balanced though it is really translucent, the microedifice incorporates a obscure avow, which can be observed in sundry habits. To touchstsingle whether Rowhammer can be influenceioned, a accuobjurgate familiarity of reminiscence cells delineation is probing. In ductile expedients, ARM ruleor reproduce-exhibits the most prevailing and reproduce-exhibitationd microprocessor. In [4] the authors detail the partiality reminiscence approximation period that tranquil results in morsel flips by hammering 5MB of visible reminiscence opportunity increasing the period among couple perrepresentation operations by instrument of inserting NOP inclinations. The rows are perfect initialized to a positive estimate, consequently perfect the changes are attribuboard to Rowhammer. Results demonstration that up to 150 morsel flips bechance per minutes with encircling 150 ns perrepresentation period.

a.iv) Procedure

The Rowhammer aggression progress is a co-operation of three ocean rule primitives:

  • P1. Unroving Uncached Reminiscence Approximation: Enable aggressioners to influenceivate alternating rows in each bank unroving ample to trigger the Rowhammer bug;
  • P2. Visible Reminiscence Massaging: The aggressioner tricks the dupe element into storing deposit-perceptive realtys (e.g., a page board) in an aggressioner-chosen, weak visible reminiscence page.
  • P3. Visible Reminiscence Orationing: To cheerful-natureds doubtful Rowhammer, an aggressioner requires to frequently-again-and-again approximation specific visible reminiscence pages.

Ductile expedients bear Direct Reminiscence Approximation (DMA) mechanisms that “facilitates” the implementation of P1 and P3. In sharp-end, Android expedients incthread ION, a DMA that perfectows reproduce-exhibitationr unprivileged apps to approximation uncached visiblely commensuobjurgate reminiscence. To exert P2 the aggressioner tricks the visible reminiscence perfectocator built in Linux (buddy perfectocator) so as to compartment the reminiscence in a predicboard habit. Respectfully selecting the delineations of reminiscence chunks to perfectocate, reminiscence cells can be exhausted through Phys Feng Shui. Once the standing of Page Board Pages (PTPs) and Page Board Entries (PTEs) is instraighthapiece referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableorious, doubtful Rowhammer is cheerful-naturedsed. Once the desired flip triggered, transcribe approximation is gained to the page board by mapping into the aggressioner oration interspace. Differing individual of the aggressioner PTPs, any page in visible reminiscence can be approximationed, including fruit reminiscence.

b) Microarchitectural aggression

­The disjunction of hardware edifice guide to a distant reproduce-exhibitation of cache memories. Having sundry equalizes of cache among a CPU and the ocean reminiscence, accelerations optimizing the reminiscence approximation period with i-elation to the clock quantity. Microarchitectural aggressions capture exercitation of the timing spend of caches (e.g. deed periods, reminiscence approximationes) to perrepresentation into perceptive referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableification.

In [6] a generic examine that presents microarchitectural aggressions is consecrated.

b.i) Principle

Microarchitectural aggressions are grounded on unanalogous cache influenceionations. Unarranged them, three ocean disposes are verified:

  • Prime + Scrutinize: The aggressioner fills individual or aggravate settleeds of the cache with its admit threads. Once the dupe has manufactured, the aggressioner approximationes its previously-loaded threads, to scrutinize if any were evicted demonstrationing the dupe bear qualified an oration mapping the selfselfidentical settleed.
  • Monied + Reload: It’s the inverse of Prime+Scrutinize where the aggressioner main moniedes a shared thread of profit. Once the dupe has manufactured, the aggressioner then reloads the evicted thread by affecting it, measuring the period capturen. A unroving reload indicates that the dupe chinky this thread (reloading it), opportunity a sluggish reload indicates that it didn’t.
  • Evict + Period: The aggressioner main tricks the dupe to incline, through the preload of its afloat settleed, and settle a dishonorablethread deed period. In a assist tread the aggressioner then eliminates a thread and inclines the dupe again. The unlikeness in deed period indicates that the analyzed thread was approximationed.

Perfect microarchitectural aggressions are a co-operation of those previously explained elements. Another observable similarity is causing Abjuration of Conservation (DoS) saturating the inferior-equalize cache home [7].

.b.ii) Architecture

As mentioned antecedently, microarchitectural aggressions concrete is the cache. Caches are unembarrassed into threads. A cache thread holds a arrest of cork bytes that are capturen from reminiscence. Cache are aid unembarrassed in equalizes. Each equalize has a unanalogous greatness and is carefully separated to counterpoise conservation period to the present main (smaller in delineation consequently unrovinger) equalize. Caches can exert either Virtual or Visible orationing. In Virtual orationing, L1 cache equalize stores the refutation of virtual-to-visible orationes.

.b.iii) Inclination Settleed Edifice

The deduction rule of the inner avow of the cache is a clew parameter to cheerful-natureds devastating microarchitectural aggressions. Analyzing the ISA of a cache can stipulate an aggressioner with reproduce-exhibitationful referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableification encircling the hardware constitute. Sundry unanalogous avows can be influenceioned and are mean summarized here:

  • Thread-shared Avow: cache stores referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableification that are shared among threads. Approximationing them could guide to cheerful-naturedsance suspension of the confused threads.
  • Core-shared avow: Analyzing L1 and L2 cache vindication exercitation among competing threads, it is feasible to deduce the encryption clews coerce algorithm reproduce-exhibitationd in inner message (e.g. RSA, AES).
  • Package-shared Avow: Inclinening a program abetting in unanalogous cores residing in the selfselfidentical parcel, could guide to the saturation of that parcel’s last-equalize cache (LLC). The saturation affects perfect the inferior equalizes, exposing perceptive realtys.
  • Numa-shared Avow: Reminiscence coercelers reminiscence in multi-core rules are influenceioned to exert DoS aggressions.

.b.iv) Procedure

A repletion of aggressions are presented in [6], consequently the progress of the Monied + Reload coerce Android rules using ARM ruleors [8] is discussed.

The most commandful disposes to cheerful-natureds Monied + Reload is to reproduce-exhibitation the Linux Rule Cperfect clflush. However it is stipulated by the OS on x86 rules, on ductile expedients using ARM this vigor is referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable benefitable. A cork “powerful” rendering of it is evidentcache and is reproduce-exhibitationd in [8].

When the aggression starts, the conservation element within the aggressioner app creates a upstart thread,

which calls into its home element to spend Monied-Reload operations in the background:

Flush: The aggressioner invokes evidentcache to monied a vigor in the dispose individuality of this shared thread.

Flush-Reload interval: The aggressioner waits coerce a unwandering period coerce the dupe to consummate the vigor.

Reload: The aggressioner consummates the vigor and measures the period of deed. With a smperfect deed period, the vigor has been manufactured (from L2 cache) by some other apps (maybe the dupe’s).

In [8] the authors demonstration that this dispose is desirable of exposeing hardware well-behaved-balancedts (touchscreen interrupts, merit card scanning) and as-well tracing software deeds paths.

c) Rowhammer vs Microarchitectural aggression

Forthcoming the categorization reproduce-exhibitationd in [1], twain Rowhammer and Microarchitectural aggressions are locomotive software aggressions that influenceions visible properties of the dupe expedient. In sharp-end Rowhammer reproduce-exhibitations the coupling cheerful-natureds of DRAM cells opportunity Microarchitectural aggressions infer perceptive referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableification through the compartment of cache timing. The couple aggressions influence at couple unanalogous equalizes: opportunity Rowhammer requires to fruit unroving on an uncached DRAM, Microarchitectural aggression concrete are cache memories that are usually SRAM. Twain of them can be applied to desktop and to ductile OS [4][8], as well-behaved-behaved as extinguishedshine environments.

c) Ductile vs Desktop aggressions

Ductile expedients are inherently aggravate weak than Desktop computers. Their portability and end integration with sumday condition constitute them aggravate benefitable to aggressioners. Aggravateover, apps are hapiece aggravate unconcerned to instperfect on ductile expedients and public thoughtlessness accelerations hackers in investing insubmissive software. As-well, with i-elation to desktop computers, ductile phones bear sundry sensors that can be influenceioned to infer referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableification encircling reproduce-exhibitationrs’ spend. Excepting from a OS aim of opinion, ductile OS are hapiece aggravate poor than Desktop OS. Specifically, Rowhammer suffers from the poor subestablished of features benefitable in desktop environments (e.g. no prop coerce immense pages, reminiscence deduplication, MMU paravirtualization). Selfidentical limitations bechances in Microarchitectural aggressions coerce ARM , where clmonied vigor to cheerful-natureds Monied + Reload is referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable proped.

2) NAND Mirroring

NAND mirroring is categorized in [1] as an locomotive topical Aspect Agent aggression that influenceions visible properties extinguished of a expedient driblet. In sharp-end, in [13] a NAND mirroring aggression is cheerful-naturedsed on an iPhindividual 5c. The deposit of Apple iPhindividual 5c became an concrete of con-balance succeeding FBI recovered such ductile expedient from a terrorist imagine in December 2015. As FBI was disqualified to recbalance realtys, NAND mirroring was suggested by Apple technology specialists as an optimal hapiece to gain unpoor passdispose endeavors so as to brutevigor it. As the encryption clew is referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable approximationible from inclineperiod dispose and it’s hardcoded in the CPU, it is imfeasible to brute-vigor the Passdispose clew extinguishedaspect the getting at the hardware equalize. In iPhones such reminiscence is a NAND glitter reminiscence. In NAND memories the cells are united in rotation which reduces the cell greatness, excepting acceptions the reckon of ordinary cells. Coerce this infer, outer mistake chastisement strategies are required. To acceleration with that, NAND reminiscence perfectocates affixed interinterillimitableness coerce mistake chastisement realtys. In [13] the authors desoldered the NAND reminiscence and mirrored it on a backup better. Although this dispose perceivems calm, sundry challenges were encountered by the authors, who had to counterpoise some electrical anomalies with affixed circuitry and as-well mechanically hinder in a PCB at sum endeavor of bruteforcing the iPhindividual dispose. Such dispose could be applied to Desktop Computers, excepting the confusion of NAND memories would be hapiece eminent and it may unfeasible, in provisions of period and confusion, to cheerful-natureds such aggression.

  1. Countermeasures

Side-agent aggressions are discovered and presented to the philosophical universe on a daily basis and suiboard vindication mechanisms are frequently referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable equaltually implemented or canreferable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable be merely deployed.

Well-balanced though countermeasures are life thought-out, it observes affect a family among aggressioners and rule engineers arduous to constitute rules aggravate assure and trustworthy.

3.a) Rowhammer Aggression

Countermeasures resisting Rowhammer bear already been commandfully explored, excepting referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable manifold are influenceually ry in the ductile composition. Commandful vigors as CLFLUSH [9] and pagemap [10] bear been disabled coerce reproduce-exhibitationrs apps, excepting Rowhammer can tranquil be cheerful-naturedsed through JavaScript. Aidmore, analyzing the cache hits and misunderstand could establish a weary of warn, excepting disposes such as [4] don’t influenceion any misunderstand. Mistake chastening disposes aren’t well-behaved-balanced that fruitful in chastening morsel flips. Most hardware vendors doubled the DRAM freshen objurgate, excepting results in [11] demonstration that freshen objurgate would require to be betterd by 8 periods. Aggravateover, the command expenditure would acception, making this explanation referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable suiboard coerce ductile expedients. In Android expedients Rowhammer aggressions’, the biggest browbeating is tranquil reproduce-exhibitationr apps life able to approximation ION. Google is developing mechanisms so as to desert it to bechance in a insubmissive habit. Individual explanation could be to dissociate ION regions coerceled by reproduce-exhibitationr apps from fruit reminiscence, in adregular to desert cork regions. Excepting well-behaved-balanced in the shortness of ION an aggressioner could coercece the buddy perfectocator to restraint reminiscence in fruit reminiscence zones by occupying perfect the reminiscence benefitable coerce reproduce-exhibitationr’s apps. Prevention of reminiscence want require to be considered to desert Rowhammer countermeasures fruitarounds.

3.b) Microarchitectural Aggression

As the ultimate design of microarchitectural aggression is deciphering cryptographic disposes (e.g. AES), a undesigning similarity to cbalance them would be to desert having smart realtys-dependencies (e.g conconprogression of cache thread approximationes or branches must referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable exist on realtys). If they exist on individual realtys, the consequence, the program is destined to fdejected referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableification through the cache. The “constant-time” implementation of modular exponentiation similarity [12] reproduce-exhibits a cheerful-natured-natured hapiece to contention realtys existency. These are aggravate public rules to thrive, whether to contention specific aggressions such as Monied + Reload in ductile expedients with ARM [8]. Disabling the rule interfaces to monied the inclination caches, the Monied-Reload aspect agents can be removed truly from ARM-

grounded expedients, excepting feasibility and deposit of this dispose bearn’t been thought-out equaltually. As-well, by removing rule calls to bear accuobjurgate period from Android could lenify perfect timing aspect agents. Another hapiece to contention Monied + Reload would be by preventing visible reminiscence sharing among apps, excepting that would influenceion the reminiscence way to swell and consequently exposing the rule to other Aspectagent aggressions.

Completion 2

  1. Protocol Design

The contemplated explanation coerce Completion 1 is reproduce-exhibited in Figure 1. To unfold this completion, indelicate moments in which the Path-centric agent enactment algorithm from [14] are verified:

  • : B receives a packet on its Agent 1 and, as an interferer is influenceing on Agent 1 on node A, B can’t despatch. B1 is the locomotive subnode, B2 and B3 are inlocomotive subnodes.
  • : B switches from Agent 1 to Agent 2 (sum cost: 3), and coerceward the packet to A through Agent 2 (sum cost: 3+6=9). B2 is the locomotive subnode, B1 and B3 are inlocomotive subnodes. A2 is the locomotive subnode, A1 and A3 are inlocomotive subnodes.
  • : A can either despatch on Agent 2 and Agent 3, excepting despatchting on Agent 2 is aggravate costly, so it switches to Agent 3 (sum cost: 9+3=12). A3 is the locomotive subnode, A1 and A2 are inlocomotive subnodes;
  • : A grant the packet at C through Agent 3 (sum cost: 12+2=14).
  1. Netfruit Applications

In our K-out-of-N rule we are profited in discernment how abundantly is a presumption of getting mistakes in sensing from N sensor, where K reproduce-exhipiece a foundation coerce accepting a trustworthy configuration. This infering thrives the binomial distribution:

In our predicament at each node, mistakes can be leading by a fib configuration (with presumption ) or by agent flipping a morsel during the aggravate-the-air period (with presumption ). Consequently coerce our N-out-of-K nodes rule we bear:

Assuming that and are dogged, the ultimate presumption of having an void of truth counteraction is a threadar co-operation of the couple:

Coerce bearing, the presumption of a prosperous configuration and transmission is .

  1. Netfruit Banners

Spectrum rarity is a distantly referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableorious completion in the universe of wirecork messages. The explosive wirecork commerce augmentation pushes academia and diligence to lore upstart explanations to this completion. Deploying LTE in unarculca spectrum brings up the contest completion of LTE-WiFi coexistence. This contest can be analyzed with a end observe at 802.11 MAC equalize. In Figure 2, a similarity among WLAN MAC layer and what is “casually” named MAC in LTE is depicted [19].

../../Desktop/Screen%20Shot%202017-03-09%20at%208.25.50%20PM.png

../../Desktop/Screen%20Shot%202017-03-09%20at%208.23.59%20PM.pngWiFi 802.11 reproduce-exhibitations CSMA/CA to rale approximationes in MAC layer. In CSMA, a node senses the commerce antecedently despatchting aggravate the agent. If a consigner distinguished is sensed in the agent, the node waits until it’s generous. In sharp-end, in CSMA/CA the backoff period of a node is exponential.

In LTE, multiple approximation is workmanled through TDMA (Period Division Multiple Approximation) purport that perfect approximationes to the agent are scheduled.

Historically LTE has been exposed coerce environments with mean interlocution, opportunity WiFi contentions interlocution in ISM with CSMA. Using them in the selfselfidentical spectrum would perceive LTE dominating aggravate WiFi, causing part cheerful-naturedsance suspension in twain the predicaments. Sundry explanations has been contemplated and implemented in the departed years. Qualcomm [15] and Huawei [16] contemplated a disjunction in period and quantity lordship. In [17] a Technology Dogged Multiple-Output antenna similarity is presented so as to purified interfered 802.11 distinguisheds. This dispose was made aggravate hale in [18] excepting tranquil they relied on the finfluence that at dejectedest individual distinguished from the couple technologies had a evident relation. Commerce requires compartment could acceleration lenify the cheerful-naturedsance percolate attribuboard to interlocution, excepting well-behaved-balanced with an accuobjurgate require stamp, simply individual can be locomotive at a positive period and quantity, limiting the aggravateperfect throughput.

When interlocution is exalted, packet transmission is defileded and mistake chastisement strategies are requireed.

In WiFi, banner Coerceward Mistake Chastisement (FEC) is reproduce-exhibitationd. In FEC, a plethora is added to the despatchted packet, so as a receiver can expose and well-behaved-balancedtually chasten the evil-doing common morsels.

On the other workman, LTE reproduce-exhibitations HARQ (Hybrid-Automated Repeat reQuest) which is a co-operation of FEC and ARQ. In the banner implementation of ARQ, plethora morsels are embedded in the packets coerce mistake counteraction. When a defileded packet is common, the receiver entreat a upstart packet to the despatchter. In HARQ, FEC disposes are encoded in the packet, so as the receiver can straighthapiece chasten evil-doing morsels, when a referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableorious subestablished of mistakes is exposeed. If an uncorrecboard mistake bechances, the ARQ dispose is reproduce-exhibitationd to entreat a upstart packet. Hybrid ARQ cheerful-naturedss better than ARQ in dejected distinguished stipulations, excepting guides to an antagonistic throughput when the distinguished is cheerful-natured.

To better perceive this interlocution spend, a smperfect airs has been cheerful-naturedsed using ns3, in sharp-end the LAA-WiFi-coexistence library [20]. The scenario was built using couple cells whose radio coverage aggravatelaps. The technologies reproduce-exhibitationd are LTE Licensed Assisted Approximation (LAA) bountiful on EARFCN 255444 (5.180 GHz), and Wi-Fi 802.11n bountiful on agent 36 (5.180 GHz). Couple dishonorable office standinged at 20 mt interinterillimitableness from another, and they twain bear individual reproduce-exhibitationr united to them at a interinterillimitableness of 10 mt. Twain BS are united to a “backhaul” client node that originates UDP in the downlink inclination from client to UE(s). In Figure 3(a) and Figure 3(b), we perceive how the throughput and the reckon of packets common by the WiFi BS varies when the couple BSs coverage area aggravatelaps and when they are dissociated (e.g. their interinterillimitableness is 10 Km). Other scenarios were touchstoneed: Figure 4 (a) reproduce-exhipiece the scenario of couple WiFi BSs and Figure 4(b) couple LTE BSs. It is feasible to perceive the spend of the couple technologies.

Board 1

Throughput A

Throughput B

Packet damage A

Packet damage B

Distant BSs Figure 3(a)

73.78 Mbps

77.55 Mbps

4.6%

0%

Interfering BSs Figure 3(b)

73.62 Mbps

4.95 Mbps

4.8%

93%

Couple WiFi BSs
Figure 4(a)

53.45 Mbps

54.41 Mbps

27%

25%

Couple LTE BSs
Figure 4 (b)

30.88 Mbps

30.4 Mbps

60%

61%

In Figure 4(a) we can perceive how the agent is cleave among the couple BSs and the Consigner Sensing Multiple Approximation spends a exalted throughput and a dejected packet damage.

In Figure 4(b) we can perceive how the interlocution among the couple LTE cells affects the throughput and gives a exalted packetloss.

In Board 1 results from airss are summarized.

References

[1] R. Spreitzer, V. Moonsamy, T. Korak, S. Mangard. “Systematic Classification of Aspect-Agent Aggressions on Ductile Expedients” ArXiv2016

[2] K. Razavi, B. Gras, E. Bosman, B. Preneel, C. Giurida, and H. Bos. “Flip Feng Shui: Hammering a Requirele in the Software Stack”. In Proceedings of the 25th USENIX Deposit Symposium, 2016.

[3] D. Gruss, C. Maurice, and S. Mangard. “Rowhammer.js: A Remote Software-Leading Fault

Aggression in JavaScript”. In Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Counteraction of Intrusions and Malware & Indeposit Assessment (DIMVA), 2016.

[4] V. front der Veen, Y. Fratantonio, M. Lindorfer, D. Gruss, C. Maurice, G. Vigna, H. Bos, K. Razavi, and C. Giuffrida, “Drammer: Deterministic Rowhammer Aggressions on Ductile Platforms,” in Conference on Computer and Messages Deposit – CCS 2016. ACM, 2016,

pp. 1675-1689.

[5] Z. B. Aweke, S. F. Yitbarek, R. Qiao, R. Das, M. Hicks, Y. Oren, and T. Austin. “ANVIL:

Software-Grounded Coverion Resisting Present-Generation Rowhammer Aggressions“. In Proceedings of the 21st ACM International Conference on Architectural Prop coerce Programming Languages and Bountiful Rules (ASPLOS), 2016.

[6] Ge, Q., Yarom, Y., Cock, D., & Heiser, G. (2016).”A examine of microarchitectural timing aggressions and countermeasures on synchronous hardware“. Journal of Cryptographic Engineering

[7] Dong HyukWoo and Hsien-Hsin S. Lee. “Analyzing cheerful-naturedsance indeposit attribuboard to means abjuration of conservation aggression on driblet multiprocessors“. In Fruitshop on Driblet Multiprocessor Reminiscence Rules and Interconnects, Phoenix, AZ, US, 2007.

[8] X. Zhang, Y. Xiao, and Y. Zhang, “Return-Oriented Monied-Reload Aspect Agents on ARM and Their Implications coerce Android Expedients” in Conference on Computer and Messages Deposit – CCS 2016. ACM, 2016, pp. 858-870.

[9] M. Seaborn and T. Dullien. “Exploiting the DRAM Rowhammer Bug to Gain Fruit Privileges.” In Bclosing Hat USA (BH-US), 2015.

[10] M. Salyzyn. AOSP Commit 0549ddb9: “UPSTREAM: pagemap: do referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable fdejected visible orationes to non-privileged reproduce-exhibitationrspace“. http://goo.gl/Qye2MN,November 2015.

[11] Y. Kim, R. Daly, J. Kim, C. Fallin, J. H. Lee, D. Lee, C. Wilkerson, K. Lai, and O. Mutlu. “Flipping Morsels in Reminiscence Extinguishedaspect Approximationing Them: An Experimental Con-balance of DRAM Disturbance Mistakes”. In Proceedings of the 41st International Symposium on Computer

Edifice (ISCA), 2014.

[12] Ernie Brickell. “Technologies to better platform deposit“. Fruitshop on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Rules’11 Invited Talk, September 2011.

[13] S. Skorobogatov, “The Bumpy Road Towards iPhindividual 5c NAND Mirroring,” arXiv ePrint Archive, Rumor 1609.04327, 2016.

[14] Xin, Chunsheng, Liangping Ma, and Chien-Chung Shen. “A path-centric agent enactment shapefruit coerce apprehensive radio wirecork networks” Ductile Networks and Applications 13.5 (2008): 463-476.

[15] Qualcomm wants LTE deployed in unarculca spectrum. http://www.fiercewireless.com/story/qualcomm-wants-lte-deployed-unlicen%

sed-spectrum/2013-11-21

[16] Huawei U-LTE explanation creates upstart bargain opportunities coerce ductile operators. http://www.huawei.com/ilink/en/about-huawei/newsroom/ press-release/HW 3%27768.

[17] S. Gollakota, F. Adib, D. Katabi, and S. Seshan. “Clearing the RF smog: making 802.11 hale to cross-technology interlocution”. In Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM, 2011.

[18] Y. Yubo, Y. Panlong, L. Xiangyang, T. Yue, Z. Lan, and Y. Lizhao. “ZIMO: erection cross-technology MIMO to agree Zigbee smog with WiFi glitter extinguishedaspect intervention”. In Proc. of MobiCom, 2013.

[19] Long-Term Disjunction Protocol: How the Banner Contacts Media Approximation Coerce Tim Godfrey WMSG Advanced Technology, http://www.nxp.com/files-static/training_presentation/TP_LTE_PHY_MAC.pdf

[20] https://www.nsnam.org/wiki/LAA-WiFi-Coexistence

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