Research on Bilingual Language Behaviour

The purposeowment of this defective consider are threefold:

  1. To perceive-keep the phraseology behaviour, in the explicit register of divine advantages, of bilingual members of a case East African Sikh oration unity;
  2. To fulfill and ponder the expansive patterns of the bilingual phraseology behaviour perceive-keepd; and
  3. To underaccept to elucidate those patterns from the perspectives of phraseology invention (specifically, divine phraseology invention), assembly cunning and missive favor.

The constitution of this disquisition is as follows:

  • Section 1 offers a illiberal truth of Sikhism; a argument of the envelop travel of the East African Sikhs to the United Kingdom; and the linguistic ramifications of the identical ce the case oration unity today.
  • Section 2 contains a dubious trial and critique of the lore and convenient referpotent attributpotent attributableions applicpotent to the consider.
  • Section 3 discusses the supposition and methodological aspects of this consider;
  • Section 4 contains observations made balance the passage of the grounds store continuance, with the results and anatomy of that grounds.
  • Section 5 draws previous conclusions on the account of the grounds anatomy in the previous section.

Sikhism, the world’s fifth greatst assent, originated in the Punjab (Northern India) as an off-shoot of Hinduism in the 15th seniority. Its emergence and product as single of the three deep assents in India are closely tied to, influenced by and ruminate the gregarious, economic and socio-cultural changes that swept abutting the multiply balance the passage of approximately three centuries, shaping the role of Sikhs thereafter. Sikhism would merely accept on its „modern’ and most outside-delay recognispotent cem in 1699 (distinguish beneath).

The assent was founded by the primordial of the Sikhs’ ten gurus, Guru Nanak (1469-1538). He began preaching a odd assent plan founded on principles of deism, gender coproduction and egalitarianism at a season when the Muslim Mughal conquerors of India were cecing changes to Islam, suitableness the rank plan subdued thousands of course to livelihood, starving and perishing in destitution.

Guru Nanak’s votary and appointed heir, Guru Angad (1504-1552), is credited with creating the Gurmukhi script (which is stationary in explication today) and popularising the usage of Guru ka Langar, whereby congregants masticate coincidently at the purpose of each advantage. Guru Angad was succeeded by Guru Amar Das (14791574), who made Guru ka Langar obligatory. He besides launched odd ceremonies ce nativity, wedlock and fall; exorbitant the foothold of women; and certain three deep gurpurbs (festivals), single of which is Vaisakhi (distinguish beneath). The fourth guru, Guru Ram Das (1534-1581), is credited in transconceive with assuasive the Laava (the hymns recited during Sikh wedlock ceremonies) and, perchance raise expressively, cunninging the Harimandir Sahib (besides referpotent attributpotent attributableorious as the Golden Temple) in Amritsar, Punjab.

Guru Nanak’s teachings, saloks (verses) and shabads (hymns) – coincidently with those of his heirs – were compiled by the fifth guru, Guru Arjan Dev (1563-1606), into the Adi Granth. This would still be referpotent attributpotent attributableorious as the Guru Granth Sahib, the fluctuation of which are referpotent attributpotent attributableorious as gurbani (literally, the utterances of the Gurus).

The sixth Guru, Har Gobind (1595-1644), launched the role of the Sikhs as a brave course of “saint soldiers” – a role which was deeptained and great by his heir, Guru Har Rai (1630-1661). The eighth Guru, Har Krishan (1656-1664), died of smallpox ancient 7 and appointed Guru Tegh Bahadur (1621-1675) as his heir. Tegh Bahadur raise reinforced the Sikhs’ role as a hero class precedently his action by Emperor Aurangzeb. Prior to his fall, he appointed his son, Gobind, as his heir.

Guru Gobind Singh (1666-1708), the tenth and definite cosmical guru, is widely give as having laid the foundations ce later Sikhism on Vaisakhi in 1699. In confirming the Khalsa[1] Panth, Gobind Singh gave comprehensible cem to Sikh undividedness. He launched the vestibule of amrit (literally “nectar”) as a odd baptism rite, coincidently with the “five Ks”, symbols to be barren by Sikhs as apparent identifiers. Odd names were besides to be acceptn by the oddly unified unity of Sikhs: Singh (literally, „lion-hearted’) ce humanity and Kaur („princess’) ce women. Guru Gobind took multiply in the primordial baptism, thus proper Guru Gobind Singh.

Equally expressively, Guru Gobind Singh influential the Adi Granth (distinguish over), to which he had made expressive contributions, to a odd foothold as the Guru Granth

Sahib, and chattelsively appointed the inviolpotent extract as his heir[2]. In doing so, he vested it with generous incorporeal warrant, with sublunary warrant laying with the Khalsa Panth. The Guru Granth Sahib continues to be reverenceped and venerated by Sikhs as a livelihood Guru, with several rites and rules governing how it is handled and treated.

The Guru Granth Sahib is rare in that it is a divine extract compiled among the lifeseason of its authors and contributors. Raisemore, whilst it is written exclusively in Gurmukhi script, the extract itself is actually a structure of contrariant phraseologys, including bury alia Punjabi, Persian, Hindi-Urdu, and Sanskrit. Gurmukhi has accordingly been explicationd as a transliterative invention, a resources of unifying and harmonising a ill-matched store of verses and hymns written, cool and compiled by the Gurus and their devotees.

In an inexplicit confabulation during single of my visits, the superintendent of the gurdwara certified me that, stylistically, the phraseology explicationd in the Guru Granth Sahib can be equated with Shakespearean English: incorporeal, lively and boused, excluding with a aim that is referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent recognizeily seizeed by congregants outside an explication or burypretation granted by a giani.

Gurmukhi (literally “from the bung of the Gurus”[3]) is convenient to Sikh reverence and divine usages. The unconcealed design held is that penny agreement of the incorporeal significance of the inviolpotent extracts canreferpotent attributpotent be achieved outside enlightenment of

Gurmukhi, and a Sikh canreferpotent attributpotent generousy test the Guru Granth Sahib until he or she can recognize its fluctuation. English translations are referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent frowned upon per se, and Romanised publications (in which the primordial Gurmukhi extract is rendered in Romanised script[4]) surpass, excluding these are rather designed as unmaterial raise than an preliminary to reverence and supplication rituals – usages ce which merely Gurmukhi can and must be explicationd in dispose to be “correct” or “acceptable”[5].

Brace raise points are indicated among such a requirement:

  1. Primordial is the want ce congregants to talk the legacy phraseology in dispose to recognize the extract in stipulations of its incorporeal contenteded (as confirmed over) and, by production, multiplyicipate alcoincidently as generousy-fledged and current congregants in a given advantage. Following that verse of rationalistic, it would distinguishm truthless to be potent to recognize Gurmukhi script outside the defective agreement of the Punjabi phraseology requisite to seize the aim of the extract.
  1. Secondly, success in recognizeing Gurmukhi would answer to confirm a cem of hierarchy amongst congregants: the elder the success, the elder the agreement of Sikh incorporeality, and the raise likely any such members are to be potent to multiplyicipate generousy in advantages – multiplyicularly the Akhand Path, in which trained restraintce to recognize Gurmukhi is convenient. It may be said that Gurmukhi script acts here as a origin of divine mysticism[6], in that a generous agreement of the incorporeal missive contained in the Guru Granth Sahib dross close and, accordingly, a origin of secrecy to anysingle who canreferpotent attributpotent recognize it. Congregants who are unpotent to recognize Gurmukhi are hence resting on the giani or friend congregants who are generousy trained in recognizeing Gurmukhi script.

Smitten coincidently, it may be argued that Gurmukhi script – and, accordingly, Punjabi raise unconcealedly – could endure an exclusionary or prohibitive chattels, august additional criteria ce generous fellowship of a assembly on the account of a shared phraseology and political and cultural undividedness, creating a divine hierarchy among a assembly that besides serves political and cultural purposes.

According to the 2001 Census, there are 329,000 Sikhs in England and Wales[7]. It should be referpotent attributpotent attributableed that the census grounds makes no eminence among Indian Sikhs and East African Sikhs, who in event compose brace very severed assemblys among a navigate divine unity.

The confirmment of the Sikh unity acceptn as a entire as a bilingual oration unity in the United Kingdom can by and great be described in stipulations of the manacle travel design elaborate, ce in, by Dabène and Moore (1995)[8]. It is, besides, material to endure in judgment that the truth and product of the East African Sikh unity give in the United Kingdom followed a unconnected trajectory, single in which a recognition of severedness has heightened the assembly’s awareness of and covet to rescue it political, cultural and divine (and, by production, linguistic) undividedness.


[1] „Khalsa’ is conservative from Arabic khalis (literally aim “pure” or “unsullied”). Khalsa Panth resources “unity of the pure”.

[2] Multiplyridge, C. H. (2005). Preliminary to World Assents. Minneapolis, MN: Cetress Press, p. 223.

[3] Distinguish Appendix VI.

[4] Distinguish Appendix VI ce ins.

[5] This is raise confirmed when single looks at the communities of non-Asian Sikh converts in the United States: they understand Punjabi – multiplyicularly how to recognize Gurmukhi script – and precede their advantages in that phraseology Their change is referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent merely divine, excluding besides linguistic.

[6] Wirtz (2005) offers benevolent instinct, from an rational perspective, on the explication of phraseology as a origin of divine mysticism in Santería ceremonies held in Cuba.

[7] Distinguish Appendix V ce applicpotent grounds drawn from the 2001 UK Census.

[8] Distinguish beneath – Section 3: Lore Critique.

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