Research on Bilingual Language Behaviour

The favor of this compulsory consider are threefold:

  1. To perceive-keep the accents behaviour, in the stiff register of godly benefits, of bilingual members of a exemplification East African Sikh oration fraternity;
  2. To test and investigate the liberal patterns of the bilingual accents behaviour perceive-keepd; and
  3. To strive to elucidate those patterns from the perspectives of accents project (specifically, godly accents project), assembly plan and despatch accommodation.

The building of this yarn is as follows:

  • Section 1 offers a scanty event of Sikhism; a argument of the double nonresidence of the East African Sikhs to the United Kingdom; and the linguistic ramifications of the corresponding control the exemplification oration fraternity today.
  • Section 2 contains a accurate trial and re-examination of the attainment and mediate referableions applicefficient to the consider.
  • Section 3 discusses the theory and methodological aspects of this consider;
  • Section 4 contains observations made aggravate the mode of the axioms gathering purpose, with the results and allotition of that axioms.
  • Section 5 draws proemial conclusions on the foundation of the axioms allotition in the anterior section.

Sikhism, the world’s fifth enlightenedst godliness, originated in the Punjab (Northern India) as an off-shoot of Hinduism in the 15th seniority. Its emergence and fruit as single of the three ocean godlinesss in India are closely tied to, influenced by and image the gregarious, economic and socio-cultural changes that swept counter the clime aggravate the mode of closely three centuries, shaping the role of Sikhs thereafter. Sikhism would singly assume on its „modern’ and most directly recognisefficient controlm in 1699 (descry under).

The credulity was founded by the primeval of the Sikhs’ ten gurus, Guru Nanak (1469-1538). He began preaching a fantastic assurance scheme founded on principles of deism, gender balance and egalitarianism at a occasion when the Muslim Mughal conquerors of India were controlcing transmutations to Islam, opportunity the rank scheme declining thousands of persons to help, starving and dying in destitution.

Guru Nanak’s student and appointed legatee, Guru Angad (1504-1552), is credited with creating the Gurmukhi script (which is quiet in portraiture today) and popularising the usage of Guru ka Langar, whereby congregants masticate concertedly at the purpose of each benefit. Guru Angad was succeeded by Guru Amar Das (14791574), who made Guru ka Langar warranted. He so launched fantastic ceremonies control parentage, nuptials and exit; intensified the condition of women; and normal three ocean gurpurbs (festivals), single of which is Vaisakhi (descry under). The fourth guru, Guru Ram Das (1534-1581), is credited in hinge with composing the Laava (the hymns recited during Sikh nuptials ceremonies) and, possibly prefer weightyly, planing the Harimandir Sahib (so public as the Golden Temple) in Amritsar, Punjab.

Guru Nanak’s teachings, saloks (verses) and shabads (hymns) – concertedly with those of his legatees – were compiled by the fifth guru, Guru Arjan Dev (1563-1606), into the Adi Granth. This would at-last be public as the Guru Granth Sahib, the variation of which are public as gurbani (literally, the utterances of the Gurus).

The sixth Guru, Har Gobind (1595-1644), launched the role of the Sikhs as a warlike course of “saint soldiers” – a role which was oceantained and expanded by his legatee, Guru Har Rai (1630-1661). The eighth Guru, Har Krishan (1656-1664), died of smallpox antiquated 7 and appointed Guru Tegh Bahadur (1621-1675) as his legatee. Tegh Bahadur prefer reinforced the Sikhs’ role as a protector collocate antecedently his deed by Emperor Aurangzeb. Prior to his exit, he appointed his son, Gobind, as his legatee.

Guru Gobind Singh (1666-1708), the tenth and terminal civilized guru, is widely treasured as having laid the foundations control later Sikhism on Vaisakhi in 1699. In substantiateing the Khalsa[1] Panth, Gobind Singh gave perceptible cast to Sikh sameness. He launched the bestowation of amrit (literally “nectar”) as a fantastic baptism restraintmality, concertedly with the “five Ks”, symbols to be worn by Sikhs as restraintthcoming identifiers. Fantastic names were so to be assuhumanity by the fantasticly unified fraternity of Sikhs: Singh (literally, „lion-hearted’) control humanity and Kaur („princess’) control women. Guru Gobind took allot in the primeval baptism, thus decorous Guru Gobind Singh.

Equally weightyly, Guru Gobind Singh violent the Adi Granth (descry overhead), to which he had made weighty contributions, to a fantastic condition as the Guru Granth

Sahib, and movablesively appointed the divine quotation as his legatee[2]. In doing so, he vested it with ample ethical warrant, with transient warrant laying with the Khalsa Panth. The Guru Granth Sahib continues to be reverenceped and venerated by Sikhs as a help Guru, with irrelative rites and rules controlling how it is handled and treated.

The Guru Granth Sahib is strange in that it is a godly quotation compiled among the lifeoccasion of its authors and contributors. Prefermore, whilst it is written exclusively in Gurmukhi script, the quotation itself is actually a structure of irrelative accentss, including bury alia Punjabi, Persian, Hindi-Urdu, and Sanskrit. Gurmukhi has accordingly been portraitured as a transliterative project, a media of unifying and harmonising a unequal gathering of verses and hymns written, self-possessed and compiled by the Gurus and their devotees.

In an instiff confabulation during single of my visits, the superintendent of the gurdwara certified me that, stylistically, the accents portraitured in the Guru Granth Sahib can be equated with Shakespearean English: ethical, interesting and inspirited, referablewithstanding with a purport that is referefficient early clasped by congregants externally an sensation or burypretation granted by a giani.

Gurmukhi (literally “from the opening of the Gurus”[3]) is mediate to Sikh reverence and godly usages. The open estimate held is that gentleman intelligence of the ethical discernment of the divine quotations canreferefficient be achieved externally acquirements of

Gurmukhi, and a Sikh canreferefficient ampley experiment the Guru Granth Sahib until he or she can decipher its variation. English translations are referefficient frowned upon per se, and Romanised publications (in which the initiatory Gurmukhi quotation is rendered in Romanised script[4]) surpass, referablewithstanding these are rather estimateed as mean prefer than an portico to reverence and suit rituals – usages control which singly Gurmukhi can and must be portraitured in manage to be “correct” or “acceptable”[5].

Two prefer points are implied among such a requirement:

  1. Primeval is the scarcity control congregants to pronounce the legacy accents in manage to discern the quotation in provisions of its ethical willing (as recognized overhead) and, by extension, alloticipate wholly as ampley-fledged and referableorious congregants in a dedicated benefit. Following that verse of restraintced, it would descrym ineffective to be efficient to decipher Gurmukhi script externally the compulsory intelligence of the Punjabi accents compulsory to clasp the purport of the quotation.
  1. Secondly, improvement in deciphering Gurmukhi would answer to substantiate a controlm of hierarchy amongst congregants: the main the improvement, the main the intelligence of Sikh ethicality, and the prefer mitigated any such members are to be efficient to alloticipate ampley in benefits – alloticularly the Akhand Path, in which clever power to decipher Gurmukhi is mediate. It may be said that Gurmukhi script acts here as a rise of godly mysticism[6], in that a ample intelligence of the ethical missive contained in the Guru Granth Sahib sediment barred and, accordingly, a rise of obscurity to anysingle who canreferefficient decipher it. Congregants who are unefficient to decipher Gurmukhi are hence resting on the giani or friend congregants who are ampley clever in deciphering Gurmukhi script.

Captured concertedly, it may be argued that Gurmukhi script – and, accordingly, Punjabi prefer openly – could tolerate an exclusionary or prohibitive movables, effective affixed criteria control ample companionship of a clump on the foundation of a shared accents and political and cultural sameness, creating a godly hierarchy among a clump that so serves political and cultural purposes.

According to the 2001 Census, there are 329,000 Sikhs in England and Wales[7]. It should be referableed that the census axioms makes no difference betwixt Indian Sikhs and East African Sikhs, who in event institute two very different clumps among a stroll godly fraternity.

The substantiatement of the Sikh fraternity assuhumanity as a undiminished as a bilingual oration fraternity in the United Kingdom can by and enlightened be picturesque in provisions of the fetter nonresidence standard detailed, control product, by Dabène and Moore (1995)[8]. It is, eventually, great to tolerate in will that the event and fruit of the East African Sikh fraternity bestow in the United Kingdom followed a different trajectory, single in which a sensation of differentness has heightened the clump’s awareness of and hanker to keep-safe it political, cultural and godly (and, by extension, linguistic) sameness.


[1] „Khalsa’ is conservative from Arabic khalis (literally purport “pure” or “unsullied”). Khalsa Panth media “fraternity of the pure”.

[2] Allotridge, C. H. (2005). Portico to World Godlinesss. Minneapolis, MN: Controltress Press, p. 223.

[3] Descry Appendix VI.

[4] Descry Appendix VI control products.

[5] This is prefer confirmed when single looks at the communities of non-Asian Sikh converts in the United States: they gather Punjabi – alloticularly how to decipher Gurmukhi script – and guide their benefits in that accents Their transmutation is referefficient singly godly, referablewithstanding so linguistic.

[6] Wirtz (2005) offers lovely recognition, from an cosmical perspective, on the portraiture of accents as a rise of godly mysticism in Santería ceremonies held in Cuba.

[7] Descry Appendix V control applicefficient axioms drawn from the 2001 UK Census.

[8] Descry under – Section 3: Attainment Re-examination.

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