Farmer could maintain more land than before because of technology. Problem: crops price were falling land rush to make up for money lost on crops and to pay loans. High interests rate from bank. Huge drought in the Midwest, many farmers lost their farm, being taken over by banks (1886).
More debt to get their way out of debt. 3. Growth of specialization in farm products CLC didn’t diverse crops, only produced one crop. 4. Changing character of markets for agricultural goods 0 shipped produce overseas (international market) 1860- 1 900 agricultural produces become 75% of US exports.OR owner made profits off farmer. Farmer didn’t benefit much.
1880, market for farmer starts to fall apart. More produce than demand. Farm produces price fall, too much produce worldwide. B. The “Agrarian Myth” and the Grange (the farming myth) – Jefferson believe independence farmer was the foundation of Americans society. Farmer discovered they were at mercy at banks and government because they were losing money.
Grange- first farmer organization formed in the 1867 in response to problems farmer felt, clubs for farmer to establish connection with other farmer.
Hang out and drank and shared ideas.Promoted railroad regulation. COOP- cooperative, way for farmer to try and save their money together and avoid using railroad. Getting rid of middle man and railroad so farmer would have a place to store their crops without paying railroad. Sold equipment at a lower price, and established their owned banks. Social Group. C.
Farmers’ Alliances (South and Midwest) replace the Grange movement because the grange fallen apart since it wasn’t well organize. Similar to Grange, offered similar service. 1870-1880 farmers find it harder to purchase more land and machine to get them out of debt.Many African American work for someone else and found them in debt. Poor white farmer were in debt with other farmers. Congress passed a law to stop silver, silver were becoming too expensive, gold is the standard to determine currency. Money supply shrink and money were less valuable.
Even harder for American farmer to pay back debt. Farmer began to becomes more connection (nation movement), merged with each other; start to become more political. Encourage member to vote for candidate who show their interests. Farmer alliance becomes the people party in 1892. (Populist Party) Demand they made includes: .A permanent union of all working classes; wanted farmer and working to share the same bond. 2.
Wealth for the worker; wanted the working to have a say in what they want. 3. Government ownership of railroads; didn’t want to be screw over by or. 4. Government ownership of all communications systems 5. More flexible and fair distribution of the national currency 6. No more ownership of land by those who do not actually use it.
Wanted silver back in tangent. D. The short lived Populist Party Bryant- young man, great speaker, and demanded free coinage of silver. Populist ideas were stolen by democrat.Progressivism (1890-1920) A. Characteristics of Progressives- middle class white Americans (Protestant) because they felt cut off of Americans society. Didn’t become minister but became minister reform.
1 . They were moralists. Many were not religious, believed in morally. 2. They believed that government should be purified and then should take action to help and protect citizens. 3. They believed in protecting the “weakest” members of society.
4. They were usually moderates and were paternalistic. B. Progressive Causes 1. An end to poverty and corruption- Darrell- Rockefeller oil practices.Stiffens- the shames of the city. People who draw attention to these problem to let people to know something had to be done.
2. Emancipation of woman 0 woman club who wanted to change society, improving schools, building library and playground, more operation for girls. Making their domestic concern a political concern. WEST- woman Christians Temperate union. (Prohibition of Alcohol) Frances Willard. Alcohol messing up home lives. 245,000 members.
Wanted to complete prohibition. 18th amendment prohibition sale in the us. Suffrages movement, right for woman to vote was pushed in 1846.Stanton, Susan B. Anthony fighting for the right for woman to vote. Reason why woman should get right to vote changed during this period. Woman equal to man, or woman have a better insight in homes.
1920, 1 9th amendments woman right to vote. 3. Social settlement movement: Jane Addams hull house, working immigrant in Chicago, place for immigrant to come and be educated about America. A new way to help immigrant. Lived among these immigrant, attracted many other young Americans woman. Setup nursery, playground, saving bank and club for immigrant woman. 1919 established Social Work as a profession.