Modeling CALL programs in EFL Flipped Classrooms

Modeling CALL programs in EFL Flipped Systematizerooms to Augment Consummation and Diction Education Supporture

Abstract

Computer software has been widely rightd regudeceased education English diction in flipped systematizerooms. The bestow con-over supplied a rightful in of integrating Computer-Assisted diction Education (CALL) programs in English rounds to flip the education manner. The peel of CALL integration addressed in this con-over has recognized greatly past flexibility in delivering adsin to sundry assemblages of English tyros or at best, to machine singularized advice. Ins of standarding CALL programs in education listening, pronunciation, lection, congeniality, and glossary were machiwant in this con-over. Sixty tyros (30 regudeceased assemblage and 30 tentative assemblage) con-overing at King Marriott Higher Institute regudeceased computer participated in this con-over. The regudeceased assemblage elaborate through the established non-flipped systematizeroom agreeableness the tentative assemblage elaborate through machineing CALL programs to flip the systematizeroom. Aftercited the Quasi tentative pre-support delineation the con-over was conducted during the highest semester of the academic year 2016-2017. The remainders of the con-over showed that CALL programs in flipped systematizerooms keep improved the tyros’ diction education supporture and averaged establishment scores to a statistically restraintcible space.

Key signals: CALL, flipped systematizeroom, supporture, singularized advice

1. Background

Introduction to CALL

What is CALL?

The acronym CALL indicates a communication that stands regudeceased Computer-Assisted Diction Education. It refers to manipulating computers in diction education and education. Spokenly, it is rightd as a resources of education and assessing point diction items. Aftercited the spoken CALL manner, the tyros are highest introduced a administration and divergent ins, then, they exercitation varied exercises to ormarket their familiarity of the administration and finally, the computer bestows misapply feedback and awards marks in registers to be aftercited checked by the preceptor.

Levy and Hubbard (2005) explain CALL as the arena that is restless with how the computer mediates natant the diction tyro and diction education objectives (shape 1).

Shape 1. Levy and Hubbard’s 2005 conceptualization of CALL

Levy (1997, p. 1) explains Computer-assisted Diction Education (CALL) as the exploration regudeceased and the con-over of computer applications in diction education and education. Beatty (2003, p. 7) bestows a wide detailation of what may go on in computer-assisted diction education (CALL), Beatty bestows a detailation of CALL that accommodates its changing affection that is any manner in which a tyro rights a computer and, as a remainder, improves his or her diction. Furthermore, CALL grasps issues of esthetic, delineation, technologies, priggish theories and of adsin modes. CALL esthetics grasp those which are largely made regudeceased diction education and those which commingle the corporeal computer-naturalized esthetics, e.g. video and other esthetics (Beatty, 2003, pp. 7-8).

The Fact of CALL

Regudeceased past than three decades, computers keep been rightd in diction education. Three deep amounts rebestow the fact of CALL: Behaviouristic CALL, Communicative CALL and Integrative CALL (Warschauer & Healey, 1998). Each amount corresponds to a sure priggish access.

Behaviouristic CALL

Influenced by audio-lingual education order, Behaviouristic CALL was emerged in the deceased 1960s and rightd widely in the 1970s. This amount was characterized by using repetitive diction drills, unconcealed as drill-and exercitation. The computer indicateed a effortless professor that never recognized tyros to effort singularly, which in incline inhibited motivation. It so indicated using bulky drills, exact interpretations and translation (Warschauer & Healey, 1998).

Communicative CALL

The Communicative CALL prepared in the 1980s behind rejecting the behavioristic access to diction education hypothetically and priggishly. At this spell, separate computers were paving the restraintm regudeceased tyros to effort singularly at schools. Corresponded to sensitive theories, Communicative CALL considered education as a manner of thread, look and bud. Advocates of Communicative CALL debated that computer probableized activities should standpoint past on using communication regulatems. Furthermore, software including simulations and passage reconstruction program was widely rightd and patent clear in this era. Therefore, Communicative CALL standpointed on what the tyros did with each other agreeableness efforting at the computer rather than what they did with the computer.

Interlocomotive CALL

Interlocomotive CALL replaced communicative CALL which began to be criticized by the 1990s. Thus, preceptors rightd past gregarious and tyro-centered orders in a retort to odd succor diction wages theories and socio-sensitive trends. Diction education in vericonsultation gregarious contexts was emphasized at this spell. Full-naturalized project-naturalized and task-naturalized accesses were applied to blend tyros in vericonsultation environments, and to blend and right sundry aptitudes of diction education. In such integrative accesses, tyros sound to right a diversity of technological machines and proceeding a continuing manner of diction education instead visiting the computer lab once a week regudeceased conducting separated exercises.

Types of CALL Programs

Davies, Hewer, Rendall, and Walker, (2004) part CALL programs into:

– Detail CALL software: They are detail diction education programs delineationed to expand, qualify the diction education manner, love diction education CDs, diction education websites and quizzes.

– Generic software: They are public computer software delineationed regudeceased public purposes, love signal-processors, bestowation software, and spreadsheet, that can be rightd in diction education.

– Web-naturalized diction programs: They are online diction education programs love concordancers, online dictionaries, online encyclopedias, odds/magazine sites, expectation.

– Computer-mediated communication (CMC): programs regudeceased online spoken and written communication love email programs, online anachronistic and synchronous colloquy, argument regulateum, expectation.

Warschauer (1996) parts CALL programs and applications into span deep categories; computer as professor programs and computer as machine programs. Computer as a professor refers to CALL programs delineationed regudeceased education rhetoric, listening, pronunciation, lection, passage reconstruction, glossary and congeniality. Computer as a machine refers to the most vulgar right of a computer as a machine, and probably the wonted right of computer programs regudeceased diction education, as signal mannering programs, rhetoric checkers, concordancers and collaborative congeniality.

Advantages of computer in diction education and education

Education and education technologies beseem singular of the most powerful areas in the educational order, distinctly in diction education (Reinders and Thomas, 2012). Today the sum of preceptors and tyros using computers and the Internet to teach/attain a succor diction has increased impuconsultation to the technology gradations (Han, 2008). In appoint to dissect the usage of using computer in diction education, Li-Yun Lu and Tang (1996) part the usages into three types: the ingrained affection of the computer; The good of the preceptor; the good of the tyro.

– The ingrained affection of the computer

The computer can discuss a greatly ramble dispose of activities, and greatly past powerfully, than other technological aids. It offers a span-compel education assemblage with the tyro. The computer can ‘assess’ the tyro’s retort. It can so vault communications, capture the tyro through after attempts at a interrogation, and unicompel capture the tyro to a divergent exception of package, holding on the affection of the retort.

– The good of the preceptor

The computer bestows opposed aspects of point attractment. Prominent natant these is its versatility in agencyling divergent peels of esthetic. Regudeceased in, the simplest is the singular-compel bestowation of advice, in the regulatem of passage, graphics, audio and video. So, the computer can discuss interrogation-and-apology routines, contrived ‘dialogues’, supposition ordealing, and numerous other types of exercises.

– The good of the tyro

The computer so offers numerous usages regudeceased the tyro. ‘Access’ is singular of the goods. The computer offers the tyro the cherished of when to con-over point topics and how crave to bestow on them. The flexibility compels numerous educational rounds public to tyros who would inadequately keep no hazard to capture them. It is not attributable attributable attributable attribuconsultation attribuconsultation attribuconsultation a reverie to compel the interstperuse education. Numerous computers can be linked by telephsingular on appropriate landlines. Alternatively, preceptors can despatch tapes or discs of their esthetics through the support. Whatever the factors of spell and interspace, the computer retains its virtual regudeceased separateized advice. There is no ‘low consideration’ era as the tyro waits regudeceased his or her incline to follow plump in systematize. On the opposite, each tyro has the computer’s bountiful consideration and can effort at the hurry best succorful to the singular.

Flipped Systematizerooms

What is a flipped systematizeroom?

The flipped systematizeroom is a novel standard of pedagogy in which the established dissertation and ordinance elements of a round are reversed. In other signals, activities that keep spokenly capturen settle internally the systematizeroom now capture settle withquenched the systematizeroom and sin versa. Regudeceased entreaty, instead of having dissertations during assemblages at university, tyros subjoin the adsin easily withquenched of assemblages, by lection, watching videos and listening to podcasts or other audio regulatemat (Centre regudeceased Academic Bud and Quality, 2016). Tucker (2012) adds there is past than singular standard regudeceased flipping the systematizeroom, the kernel effect is to flip the established adviceal access: with the succor of preceptor-created videos and interlocomotive lessons, adsin that rightd to capture settle in systematize is now accessed at residence, in gradation of systematize. The systematizeroom beseems a settle to market with problems, gradation concepts, and to attract in collaborative and locomotive education.

In contrariety to the dissertation regulatemat, in flipped systematizerooms the role of the dissertationr changes from nature a bestower of full to a education coach. Bergmann, Overmyer and Willie (2011) propound that the dissertationr is no craveer the “sage on the amount” barring the “guide on the side”. Tyros beseem locomotive tyros instead of resting on the dissertationr as the disseminator of familiarity.

Advantages of the flipped systematizerooms

Flipped systematizerooms keep may education usages connected to sustainable education, attractment and interaction. Bergmann, Overmeyer and Willie (2011) grasp opposed usages regudeceased the “Flipped” systematizeroom:

1- lifecrave education: tyros hold on CALL programs to attain the full precedently future to systematizerooms. Such order of acquiring familiarity, is a lifecrave education aptitude.

2- Esthetic attractment: in systematizeroom tyros thorough divergent locomotive education exercises that contemplate the applications, implications and controversies associated with the esthetic. This attractment highlights the weight of the esthetic in the tyros’ common,ordinary lives and succors them redeceased to the topics.

3- interaction natant tyros and grant: systematize eras are specific to interactions natant the tyros. This temporization shifts the standpoint of tyros from the front of the systematizeroom. The flipped systematizeroom moves the grant preceptor from the amount to singular-on-singular interacting with the tyros.

2. Order

2.1. Participants and location

The con-over was conducted at the King, Marriott Higher Institute regudeceased Computer Science, Alexandria, Egypt during the highest semester of the academic year 2016-2017. 60 tyros (30 regudeceased assemblage and 30 tentative assemblage) participated in the con-over.

2.3. Treatment

Span units from “Commercial&Technical English Communicationinology Passagebook” were rightd in this con-over (Unit 1: Introduction into Employment English and Unit 2: Recruitment). The regudeceased assemblage elaborate the span units through the established non-flipped systematizeroom. The tentative assemblage elaborate the units through machineing CALL programs to flip the systematizeroom. The researchers introduced the contemplated CALL programs and how to right them during the prefatory assemblage.

2.4. Instruments

2.4.1. Consummation Ordeal

The researchers conducted an consummation ormarket to assess the participants’ deed. The ormarket is collected of three parts; the highest evaluates communication aptitudes, the succor assesses glossary wages and the third is lection understanding. (postscript I).

2.4.2. Supporture Reconnoitre

To assess the participants’ supportures inland the flipping systematizerooms in English diction education, the researchers conducted an supporture reconnoitre (postscript II). The researchers followed Lickert’s 5 dispose layer in conducting the reconnoitre.

3. Remainders

3.1. Consummation

Supposition Singular

There is a statistically restraintcible variety natant the average scores of the tentative assemblage tyros and that of the regudeceased assemblage in the support application the consummation ormarket in permission of the tentative assemblage tyros.

To authenticate the hardness of the restraintmer supposition defiant samples t-ormarket was rightd. Consultation (1) shows the recognition of variety natant the average scores of the regudeceased and the tentative assemblage tyros in support-testing.

Consultation 1

Recognition of variety natant the average scores of the tentative and the regudeceased assemblage tyros in support- ordealing

Group

Mean

Std. Deviation

Levene’s Ordeal

df

t

Sig.

Control

13.4

1.79

F

Sig.

58

5.35

.001

Experimental

15.7

1.57

.31

.57

The facts bestowed in consultation (1) reveals that Levene’s Ormarket “F” (Equality of Variances) equals 0.31 which is restraintcible at 0.57, “t” rate is (5.35) and restraintcible at 0.001, and “df” equals 58 which resources that there is a statistically restraintcible variety natant the average scores of the regudeceased and tentative assemblage in support-testing.

3.2. Supportures

Supposition span: Participants keep direct supportures inland flipped systematizerooms in English diction education.

Results of supporture reconnoitre are bestowed in the aftercited consultation.

Consultation 2

Students’ supportures inland flipping the systematizerooms in English diction education

Statement

Strongly agree

Agree

Indecisive

Disagree

Strongly disagree

1. The flipped temporization succored me to con-over singularly according to my tread.

No.12 (41.4%)

No.13 (44.8%)

No.3

(10.3%)

No.1

(3.4%)

No.0

(0%)

2. The flipped temporization attracted me to con-over past withquenched the systematizeroom.

No.11

(36.7%)

No.14

(46.7%)

No.3

(10%)

No.2

(6.7%)

No.0

(0%)

3. The flipped temporization succored me to gain past familiarity and advice.

No.9

(30%)

No.15

(50%)

No.5

(16.7%)

No.1

(3.3%)

No.0

(0%)

4. In-systematize activities augmentd what I elaborate withquenched the systematizeroom.

No.9

(30%)

No.16

(53.3%)

No.5

(16.7%)

No.0

(0%)

No.0

(0%)

5. In-systematize activities compel the preceptor beneficial to apology interrogations.

No.18

(60%)

No.11

(36.7%)

No.0

(0%)

No.1

(3.3%)

No.0

(0%)

6.Inaugurated with colleagues collaboratively in systematize compels me past locomotive.

No.9

(30%)

No.16

(53.3%)

No.4

(13.3%)

No.1

(3.3%)

No.0

(0%)

Close mistake of the facts bestowed in the restraintmer consultation reveals that the participants keep direct supportures inland flipping the systematizerooms in English diction education.

4. Argument

The researchers machiwant divergent CALL programs in this con-over love Probable Peruseer, Corpus concordancing, online listening Lab and PowerPoint bestowations. The clarified trailing units were explained and bestowed through PowerPoint program and were fond to the tentative assemblage tyros to be elaborate withquenched the systematizeroom. So, the tentative assemblage tyros were useful during the prefatory assemblage on a cocordancing program regudeceased enhancing glossary wages and the probable peruseer program regudeceased expanding lection aptitudes. Tentative assemblage tyros were useful to con-over the contemplated units withquenched the systematizeroom and to exercitation divergent activities in the systematizeroom to augment what they keep elaborate. On the other agency the regudeceased assemblage tyros elaborate with the established order, i.e. interpretation in the systematizeroom and activities withquenched the systematizeroom.

Behind finishing the treatment (2 units) twain the tentative and the regudeceased assemblage tyros sat regudeceased an consummation ormarket and the tentative assemblage tyros thoroughd an supporture reconnoitre connected to the flipped systematizerooms. The average scores of the regudeceased and the tentative assemblage were 13.4 and 15.7. The remainders of the consummation ormarket highlights the powerfulness of flipping the systematizerooms. Furthermore, the remainders of the reconnoitre proved that tentative assemblage tyros agreed upon flipping the systematizerooms.

References

Beatty, K. (2003). Education and researching computer-assisted diction education. Odd York: Craveman.

Bergmann, J., Overmyer, J., and Willie, B. (2011). The flipped systematize: What it is and What it is not attributable attributable attributable attribuconsultation attributable. The Daily Riff. Retrieved from http://www.thedailyriff.com/

articles/the-flipped-class-conversation-689.php.

Centre regudeceased Academic Bud and Quality (2016). CADQ Guide: The flipped systematizeroom. Not attributable attributable attributable attribuconsultation attributabletingham Trent University. Retrieved from www.ntu.ac.uk/cadq

Davies, G., Hewer, S., Rendall, H., & Walker, R. (2004). ICT4LT Module 1.4: Introduction to computer assisted diction education (CALL). http://www. ict4lt.org/en/en_mod1-4.html.

Han, W. (2008). Goods and barriers of computer assisted diction education and education. US-China Foreign Diction, 6(9), 40-43.

Levy, M. (1997) CALL: Conpassage and conceptualization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Levy, M. and Hubbard, P. (2005). Why wheedle CALL ”CALL”? Computer Assisted Diction Education. Vol. 18, No. 3.

Li-Yun Lu and Tang, F (1996). Computer-Assisted Diction Education. NYU – School of Education – Department of Education and Education-Multilingual Multicultural Studies – TESOL.

Reinders, H., Thomas, M. (2012). Contemporary computer assisted diction education. Retrieved from http://www.eblib.com.

Tucker, B. (2012). The Flipped Systematizeroom. Education Next. Retrieved from www. educationnext.org.

Warschauer M. (1996) “Computer Assisted Diction Education: an Introduction”.
In Fotos S. (ed.) Multimedia diction education, Tokyo: Logos International: 3-20.

Warschauer, M., & Healey, D. 1998. Computers and diction education: an overview. Diction education regulateum. 31, Pp.57-71.

Appendices

Postscript I

Consummation Ordeal

I- Thorough the aftercited converse. (7 pts)

Operator: Hello, Frank and Brothers association, …?

John: This is John Robert. Can I keep extension 3421?

Operator: Surely, . .

David: Jack Richardson’s advantage, David restraintcible.

John: John Robert wheedleing, is. ?

David: I’msorry he’s quenched at the avail. Can …?

John: Yes, Could you pray him to . at 9147 6320. It’s immediate.

David: Could you … the sum content?

John: Yes, that’s 9147 6320, and this is John Robert.

David: Thank you Mr Robert, I’ll compel … communication.

John: Thanks, bye.

David: Good bye.

II- Insert the aftercited signals in the gaps in the passage underneath. (9 pts)

Numerous People looking regudeceased effort peruse the …. advertised in oddspapers by companies and…. . To rejoinder to an adevertisment it is to … regudeceased a function. You occupy the association’s., and despatch it acrave with your CV and… You repeatedly keep to bestow the names of span.. . If your qualifications equal the… , you command be. , i.e. clarified to mind an.. .

III- Peruse the aftercited gather, then apology the interrogations. (4 pts)

Employment is an organized access to providing customers with divergent products and advantages they want. So signal employment refers to an construction that provides these products and advantages. Employmentes in public court to compel a emolument i.e., they aid to end revenues that abound the costs of frank the employment. Prominent ins of regulate-emolument employmentes grasp Mitsubishi Assemblage, Public Motors Corporation, and Royal Dutch/Shell Assemblage. However, some employmentes barely court to merit plenty to cover their frank costs. Vulgarly wheedleed nonprofits, these constructions are largely nongovernmental sersin providers. Ins of nonemolument employmentes grasp such constructions as gregarious sersin agencies, foundations, panegyric assemblages, and numerous hospitals.

Apology the aftercited interrogations.

1- Explain employment and its deep aid.

2- Show the variety natant emolument and nonemolument employment.

3- Mention span ins of nonemolument constructions.

4- Propose a suiconsultation address to the gather.

Postscript II

Posture Reconnoitre

Choose the retort that best contemplates your supporture

1. The flipped temporization succored me to con-over singularly according to my tread.

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Indecisive
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree

2. The flipped temporization attracted me to con-over past withquenched the systematizeroom.

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Indecisive
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree

3. The flipped temporization succored me to gain past familiarity and advice.

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Indecisive
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree

4. In-systematize activities augmentd what I elaborate withquenched the systematizeroom.

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Indecisive
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree

5. In-systematize activities compel the preceptor beneficial to apology interrogations.

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Indecisive
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree

6. Efforting with colleagues collaboratively in systematize compels me past locomotive.

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Indecisive
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree

 This size is compiled and supplemented by singular of the researchers (Dr. ayman Elesery).

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