Mainstream Literature – Does this Worsen the Text?

“How remote does producing to the approved mainstream divest a citation of its literariness?”

(Explore the habits in which your selected yarn citations pass competing demands of ‘literary’ and ‘the approved’)

William Faulkner said of Ernest Hemingway: ‘He has never been unreserved to interpretation a promise that susceptibility cast a reader to the dictionary’ (UOI, 1947) atfascinating to tally the literariness of his possessions. Heminghabit responded; ‘Moneyshort Faulkner. Does he indeed remain fat emotions object from fat promises? I perceive them solid equitable. Beside there are older and simpler and ameliorate promises, and those are the undivideds I interpretation.’ (Ross, 1950) His vindication to Faulkner’s elitism suggests that a citation does referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable accept to unite to the indicated, repeatedly judgemental rules that designate a fpossession of effect as studious in appoint to be good of such a designate. Using the strains of Linton Kwesi Johnson and The Hunger Games by Susanne Collins, I succeed analyse how twain effectrs expatiate the casuistical method betwixt what is approved and what is studious, and whether this affects the balancesolid collision of their effect or its thoroughness as studious fable. I denote to contobject that a citation does referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable accept to introduce itself in a ‘literary’ style in appoint to be judgeed good of the arrange studious, and similarly, studious citations can be extraneously complying to the demands of mainstream refinement whilst stationary entity appreciated by strange-fangled fellowship.

In its simplest limitation, balbutiation is singly a written effect; it is singly when we fix the boundaries of what is judgeed investigationive, or ‘art’, upon it that there becomes any bark of idea as to whether a transcriber’s effect is studious or referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable. In dissimilarity, approved refinement is a arrange associated with largely Western besidetress, intelligence, technology and sports. In its moderate construction, the conception of ‘popular’ was undivided associated with the uncultivated effecting arrange, in similarity to the ‘literary’ refinement of the conspicuous arrangees. Explode refinement was “the refinement of those beyond the command establishment; it was wholly severed from – scorned and embracing by – those in command, who had their entertain “official refinement” (Berrong, 1986). As a issue, there is an ongoing elitism internal ‘liked refinement’, with abundant markling it worn or doltish, or suggesting that “reduced refinement avail material, effect and entity wholly subservient; there is no self-evident sorrow with contemplative conceptions or uniform with fableal effects of coeval collective gatherings and issues pleased to color unwritten effecting arrange esteems.” (Gans, 2008) As a issue, creators and assemblys of approved refinement are by homogeneity judgeed to be flimsy or scant in ability.

‘Popular’ fable is designated as ‘plot-driven fableal possessions, written with the eager of reasonable into a favoring studious genre,’ (French, 2010) so as to refer to mainstream readers who subsidize into the pre-existing effectat becainterpretation it is affable, recognisable and largely digested. These so-denominated conventions of approved fable are “favoring betings, roles, uniformts and esteems that designate indivisible genres and their subgenres” (McKee, 1997) and repeatedly, publishing houses are unreserved to introduce unsuitable guidelines ce effectrs to thrive in appoint to accept their possessions judgeed ce referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableification. Any balbutiation in reasonable with these conventions is usually judgeed severed from ‘literary’ fable by censors ce entity stereonatural and diseased written; those citations are generated simplely to afford escapism to its readership as opposed to meaningful, carefully crafted prose that susceptibility permit idea or possession. Studious fable refers to possessions that remain so-denominated ‘studious excellence’, which here instrument that they involve of collective observation, comments on societal hegemonic ideologies and the ethnical circumstances. Approve its approved twin, studious fable is written objectly with its entertain be of conventions in idea, with the dissimilarity entity that the rendezvous of the possessions implicated lingers balance on themes than on fast-paced batch gradation or assembly refer. It is arguable that explode refinement is the easiest habit to recompense the mainstream, an assembly fundamentally made up of childish specials; technology has transformed ‘culture, in-particular approved refinement, into the primitive educational standing in which adolescence imbibe environing themselves and the larger globe’ (Giroux, 2000). There has frequently been pleasedious investigation in-reference-to the discrepancies betwixt exalted readiness, a predicament into which balbutiation falls, and approved refinement. However, it is arguable that this investigation is obsolete; the dissimilitude betwixt the span is blurred – sequenceful becainterpretation a fpossession of effect is largely frank and refers to the magnitudees, does referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable necessarily surrender its exactness or fancy it an doltish fpossession of effect that is scant in idea. A televised congeniality of Austen’s Pride and Prejudice, or Baz Luhrman’s strange-fangled reimagining of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, ce exemplification, could be judgeed studious in an intertextual coercionm, entity as their commencements accost from arrangeic balbutiation. Ce exemplification, effectr John Storey would contobject that “the intrinsic limitation of refinement has the gathering that fur ‘exalted refinement’ is too approved” (Storey, 2014), making the span up-hill to severed into dissoluble categories. It too could be said that explode refinement is balance gentleman to fellowship than so designated “exalted readiness”, becainterpretation it wields so fur bias balance the unconcealed unconcealedly-knadmit and which resources they do or do referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable consume; ‘in the labor balance the symbolic appoint that markizes our ages, approved refinement – open by designate brands and multiform effects of resources, including the Hollywood film impressivity – is sharp in creating the identities and representations that our adolescence embrace’ (Reynolds 2006).

Linton Kwesi Johnson is a Jamaican transcriber grounded in the United Kingdom – the second cling singer, and the singly singer of colour, to be immortalised in the Penguin Strange-fangled Arrangeics gathering. Johnson is a dub singer – a genre that is, according to him, “overcompensation ce deprecation” – and as a transcriber, refuses to coneffect to English types of singerry; he interpretations Creole confused-talk as a collective announcement, defying the expectations fellowship remains ce singers. This phonetic, unstandardized transcription of his entertain direction is surely referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable that of excellent studious figures Jane Austen, George Orwell-mannered or Charles Dickens, and so-far, he has been adjudgeed the Golden PEN adjudge in 2012 ce “a Virtuousstime’s Distinguished Service to Balbutiation”. His conception of singerry has been passed through originations, and did referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable singly insist of type Accepted Pronunciation English or what was fancyed publishable beside interposed unwritten vassal songs. Johnson’s singerry is heavily orthodox by the Bbankruptcy Panther substitute-of-place, a arrange in which he became locomotive during his nurture years; their permission entity that oppression in the visage of fixed racism is needful, using militant revolutionary cece aggravate the racist police and dissimilarity of 1960’s London. He himself describes his despatches as “a collective imencroach […] singerry was a cultural weapon” (Wroe, 2008). It was during Johnson’s childhood that the SAS sequence, or the 1824 vagrancy impress, was reintroduced, which enabled the police to capture someundivided they reputed had eagerions of perpetrateting a wrong, solidowing police to commission and capture specials of colour in London extraneously any illustration. The investigation matter of his singerry is usually collective, coloring his experiences as an African-Carribean cling in Britain, beside has too rendezvoused on ceeign policies and police savagery.

Johnson’s strain ‘If I woz a tap natch singer’ assists referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable singly as an specimen of his decadence from the conventions of ‘literary’ effect beside concomitantly describes his repudiation of the rule, and his “interstitial position betwixt singer and singer, betwixt “high’ readiness and approved refinement, betwixt politics and aesthetics” (McGill 2003). Ce exemplification, he begins “if I waz a tap-natch singer, approve Chris Okigbo, Derek Walcot ar T.S Eliot” (Johnson, 2004); the sttactics challenges any predispositions suggesting that rules effect according to indisputable principles of coherency or connection. Chris Okigbo signals an choice to the Western Rule advocated by censors. In dissimilarity, Derek Walcott is a Nobel laureate, and his apparition suggests a substitute-of-place tail internals unrepealed tastes. However, the inclusion of T.S. Eliot informs that the rule Johnson is crafting is unfortunately undivided made up wholly of specials of colour. He remains by proverb if he were ‘top-notch’ himself, he would transcribe a strain ‘soh dyam deep/dat it bittah-sweet’ (Johnson, 2004), hinting that the possessions of Okigbo, Walcott and Eliot generate effect that is ‘deep’ or poses investigationive investigations, a prerequistanding of literariness. Balanceover, the strain appears to push another satire when analysed balance in-undivided in that T. S Eliot appears as a ‘token’ colorshort singer, which is reminiscent of the habit in which equitable-wing institutions that anthologise the zeitgeist of the ages, such as anthologies, are unreserved ce including very rare specials of colour, rarely sequenceful a unique special, to inform reputed dissimilarity and escape animadversion or taillash from minorities.

On peradventure the other object of the studious spectrum to Johnson is Suzanne Collins, an American transcriber, astonishmentful ce her childish adult dystopian trilogy The Hunger Games. She was born in Harvard, Connecticut beside entity the daughter of a soldierly director, insistently moved across America. Consequently, orthodox by her father’s walk in the Air Cece, her effect tackles themes of belligerence and its possessions on the globe, including indigence, exhaustion and sinshort civilian cessation. The Hunger Games is be in Panem, a post-apocalyptic America made up of the Capitol and 12 embracing boundarys; gross year, span extemporespring from each boundary, hardy and dowagerish, are selected to procure preadiness in an unsuitable, televised engagement to the cessation, unreserved as the Hunger Games. The staggering approvedity of her effect issueed in her entity designated undivided of Age magazine’s “most controlling specials of 2010” and as of March 2012, became the best-selling Barkle effectr of solid age. It is referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable extraordinary ce creators of balbutiation to interpretation so designated ‘explode refinement’ tropes and expend them into exalted refinement possessions; with the blurred methods of studious and approved chief identifiable in the Romantic limit where marvel fable became a material bias on coming balbutiation, opposing having been previously disparaged. Balance strange specimens involve Andy Belligerencehol’s interpretation of the Campbell soup can in his explode readiness, as well-mannered-mannered as readinessist Jeff Koons conceptualising kitsch and pornography, investigation matters repeatedly vilified ce scant in refinement or casuisticalsse, to generate strange effect which is reputedly esteemshort of the mark ‘exalted readiness’.

This identical technique of intertextuality and the conception that any undivided fpossession of balbutiation is generated by combining separate others is arguably illustrationd in Collins’ dystopian fantastic; on the subjectner, it is a childish adult marvel implementing the natural effectulaic conventions and mark archetypes illustrationd in the bulk of mainstream explode refinement, arguably orthodox by the momentous prosperity of Stephanie Meyer’s Twilight saga. However, when discussing the commencement of The Hunger Games, Collins cites the supposition of Theseus and the Minotaur as the most momentous revelation ce her magnitude – a arrangeic Greek narrative wherein Minos ceces the specials of Athens to surrender 14 women and extemporespring to be slaughtered by the Minotaur in the constant maze. She too interweaved the concept of the Rosubject gladiator games; “an solid-powerful and unsparing synod, specials ceced to engagement to the cessation, and the game’s role as a commencement of approved information” (Scholastic, 2010) and in doing so, she prosperityfully brings astonishmentful, arrangeic Greek balbutiation to the mainstream assemblys, albeit in a balance largely congenial style, by reimagining the stories in a style that refers to explode refinement fans.

Contrastingly, Johnson’s singerry rendezvouses referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable on fabled coercionce narratives, beside on influenceual virtuouss issues of racism, dissimilarity and police savagery, severicularly in London, where he grew up. It can be productive that, as this is referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable a material to which approved refinement utilise ce its assemblys, he does referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable sorrow himself with the ideas of censors, or of his assembly ce that matter, on his effect. It is my unanalogousiatement that it is balance weighty ce Johnson to advance anti-racial messages and repudiate aggravate the mistreatment of specials of colour. Johnson himself said that despatches anti-establishment singerry during the Race Riots could be judgeed an imencroach of repudiate, an imencroach that could accept been to his excellent damage as a issue of the United Kingdom’s fervent racism. This shows Johnson to accept thoroughness – he is despatches environing what he believes is weighty and excellence proverb; undivided habit to pereffect a ” cupel of studious excellence must be, chief, the artlessness of the transcriber. I would be succeeding, I remain, uniform to infer the marrow of object of the transcriber” (Peters, 2006). From this, undivided can contobject that Johnson’s artlessness in his despatches of his experiences, and his advanceence to direct infuriate and aid reactions to collective issues effects his effect studious. In ‘If I waz a tap-natch singer’, he objectly distinguishes himself from any of the other transcribers he mentions; he discernms to be in a liminal illimitableness, and it is up-hill to unanalogousiate where he discerns himself among the hierarchy of studious and approved. It is arguable that he doesn’t judge himself a preadiness of either predicament, becainterpretation neither of them assist any avail to him. However, whether a citation is fancyed studious or approved is very rarely a sentence made by its entertain creator; Johnson is singly distancing himself from the subjectner, as he feels it is needless. Although his effect remains no illustration of approved refinement relations, it is surely approved amongst a favoring boy arrange; specials of colour. They accept practiced abundant of the atrocities he transcribes of, and can tell to them in a habit that the colorshort Western mainstream cannot. As a issue, I would contobject that Johnson’s despatches is surely ‘popular’ amongst a niche assembly, and that refering to the magnitude bargain is referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable the singly predicament that effects a citation good of the designate. Johnson chief became locomotive in the singer homogeneity in nurture, beside he was referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable published until 1974, in the journal Race Today. In the identical year, Harper Lee’s controversial bildungsrosubject To Kill a Mockingbird was too released. Twain Johnson and Lee tackle the investigation matter of racism, albeit in unanalogous areas of the globe, and Lee’s fantastic is guarded as undivided of the excellencupel of our origination. The dissimilarity betwixt Harper Lee and Linton Kwesi Johnson is that undivided is a clear colorshort dowager, and the other a Jamaican subject of effecting-arrange tailground, whose singerry is referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable isn’t carefully pre-packaged in the type Oxford Dictionary English, the mainstream entity childish colorshort heterosexual teenagers, who of rotation, advance to appropinquation balbutiation in this habit. Johnson is piqued environing his mistreatment, and that of so abundant other specials of colour, at the hands of colorshort policemen and politicians and civilians.

When declaring a citation good of studious excellence, censors momentously judge the virtuous or messages the incident is unmanageable to generate, usually through the medium of symbolism or solidegory. The metonymic concept of ‘bread and circuses’ becomes severicularly liable when looking at The Hunger Games, as the Latin translation ‘Panem et circenses’ assistd as revelation ce the designate of the fantastic’s fableal beting, Panem. The typeistic, chief interpretationd by Juvenal, who was degrading the sheep-approve constitution of reduced specials, their smallness and obliviousness to rove sorrows and urbane part, solidudes to an recompensement with a bankruptcy of material. It refers to the habit in which reputedly radical synods effect interpretation of flimsy distractions to recompense the contiguous, simple requirements of a explodeulace in appoint to remain to subjectipulate them ce hegemonic gain. Although this could effect relation to the Capitol’s attempts to placate the boundarys so they canreferable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable balancethrow their regime and divest their hierarchy, it could too be an solidegory ce the habit in which approved refinement possessions in the influenceual globe. When entrance a Marxist balbutiation of the fantastic, it is arguable that Collins was orthodox by the Industrial Revolution, most referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableiceably the cling circumstancess in 19th senility Europe. Katniss illustrates this by proverb “What must it be approve, I astonishment, to speed in globe where besidetress appears at the encroach of a besideton? How would I spobject the hours I now perpetrate to combing the woods ce support if it were so unconcerned to object by” (Collins, 2008). Collins’ batch coincides with Marx’s collectiveist philosophy; Panem is interposed of span arranges, the proletariat, or the specials of the boundarys, and the bourgeoisie, or the Capitol. This exaltedlights what is a fundamentally unregular arrangement wherein the bulk of affluence is held by the boy whilst the unconcealed unconcealedly-knadmit labor to guard a cling. This is excite illustrationd by President Snow’s hosting of the Hunger Games, themselves, wherein his synod remain thorough command balance the Boundarys and their specials, who accept unconditionally no prospect of ascending to exalteder status. Katniss, the protagonist of the fantastic, speeds in the boundary that is hardest mistake by the Capitol’s regime. She represents the reducedest of the proletariat, controlasmuch-as the closer the boundarys are to the Capitol, the balance advantageous; “It’s fascinating, so fascinating, when I discern the benevolence indecision there precedently me. And I perceive that if I don’t obtain it, someundivided else succeed. That the Walk Tributes who extinguishedlast the bloodbath succeed dissect up most of these virtuouss-sustaining loot.” (Collins, 2008) Here, Katniss describes the ‘Walk tributes’ are balance approvely to extinguishedlast, having accepted trailing ce their solid speeds to arrange ce the games. Whilst Boundarys Undivided and Span stationary accept to afford extemporespring ce the games, this is a simple façade, bread and circuses; Snow effects the boundarys remain grossobject is correspondent, beside in impressuality, the Walk tributes are fur approvelier to extinguishedlast and pacify the Games, thus guarding the bourgeoisie whilst unwillingly killing extempore the moneyless. However, Katniss thrives the Marxist ideology and “seizes the instrument of production”. Collins transcribes “Extraneously a victor, the gross object would breath up in the Gamemakers’ visages. They’d accept failed the Capitol. Susceptibility maybe uniform be dundivided unwillingly and painfully, conjuncture the cameras scattered-abroad it to gross protect in the country” (Collins, 2008) By refusing to comply, rejecting the role of victor and assuring Peeta to do the identical, this ceces the Gamemakers to substitute the rules and solidow twain to pacify. Katniss is stationary assured, though, that the Capitol would accept the command to effect an specimen of the Gamemakers to cure appoint. These solidusions to Marxism and communist speculation hint that there is a restrainttune balance profundity to Collins’ effect than it at chief discernms; by incorporating themes of influenceual virtuouss arrange issues, she is commenting on societal gatherings and posing a virtuous investigation in-reference-to America’s strange-fangled arrange arrangement.

When asked how he would designate literariness, censor Walter Van Tilburg Clark extinguishedward “the decisive cupel of studious excellence, is the command to objecture perspicuously such a cupel canreferable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable be applied to a strange or strange effect, and undivided cannot, I remain, extemporeer soundly an idea on the presumption of objecturance” (Peters, 2006). Here, he is arguing that the most momentous standard of the limitation is that if a citation can objecture, it can be judgeed good of studious excellence. It is referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable, then, needful ce a citation to thrive the other rules in-reference-to tenor, connotations or conveying a exalteder meaning; if a citation is approved, it is approvely to objecture. The Hunger Games Trilogy departed 50 weeks on the Strange York Ages bestseller inventory and has been translated to the protect as a multi-million dollar film rotation. Such a verbose cling at the extreme of a exaltedly-guarded rating arrangement is mild of objecturance, and hence, careshort of the issues the trilogy introduces in arranges of stereonatural explode-refinement tropes and mark moulds, it can be designated as studious. In inferition, the concept of literariness is undivided that is intrinsicly investigationive; severicularly becainterpretation aesthetic esteem is wholly grounded in specialal advanceence. It is, according to censors, a “relic of a erudite elite”.Similarly, the predispositions in-reference-to ‘popular’ citations and it’s repudiation as uncultured too discernm to be extinguisheddated views stemming from quaint permissions. The establishment and unanalogousiatement of approved refinement, hence, is needful “to unanalogousiatement ourselves, our identities and the globe that surrounds us.” A citation that is judgeed sparkling by undivided, succeed be awful to another; we each accept unanalogous interests and tastes, and there is never going to be agreement when defining ‘literary’ and ‘popular’ and the dissimilarity betwixt them. The examine of approved refinement enables us to judge balbutiation in a short judgemental, balance comprehensive style, voiding the intrinsic sequences of what effects a citation studious or fundamentally ‘good’. Approved refinement does referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable detestedly lobject itself singly to companies to churn extinguished diseased-written prose scant in esteem and acception financial wealth, although it is subjectipulated by those in command to detrimencroach from influenceual virtuouss issues; sequenceful becainterpretation this is the occurrence some of the age, it doesn’t designate solid balbutiation that falls into the predicament of ‘popular’ as ungood of too entity studious. The span arranges are referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable mutually detested, and a citation does referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable concede up its equitable to entity undivided by adhering to some markistics of the other. The spectrum of defining studious and approved – categories, albeit peremptory in constitution, which are referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable binary opposites – in arranges of balbutiation, is, in my idea, undivided that is wholly specialal, and each indivisible succeed remain idea on where any conceden citation falls; that does referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable effect them gentleman, as there are no set-right answers.

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References

Johnson, L. K (2002) “If I Woz a Nap-Natch Singer’, Mi Revalueshanary Fren: Selected Strains” London: Penguin

Collins, Suzanne (2008) ‘The Hunger Games’ Strange York, Scholastic

University of Iowa (1967) “An Interview With Succeediam Faulkner” The Western Review: A Studious Quarterly, Volume 15, Number 4

Ross, Lillian (1950) “Profiles: How Do You Approve It Now, Gentlemen?” The Strange Yorker, F. R. Publishing Corporation, Strange York.

Berrong, R.M (1986) “Rabelais and Bakhtin: Approved Refinement in Gargantua and Pantagruel” University of Nebraska Encroach

Gans, Herbert J (2008) “Liked refinement and exalted refinement” Basic Magnitudes. pp. 8-10

Storey, J (2014) “From Approved Refinement to Grossday Virtuouss” Routledge

French, C.T “Studious Fable vs Genre Fable”[online] http://www.authorsden.com/categories/article_top.asp?catid=10&id=18884 (accessed December 2016)

McKee, R (1997) Story: Material, Structure, Style, and the Principles of ProtectwritingStrange York: HarperCollins. p. 87

Giroux, Henry (2000) “Stealing Innocence: Adolescence, Corporate Command and the Politics of Refinement, Strange York, St. Martin’s Encroach

Reynolds, W (2006) “Cultural curriculum studies, reiter-ation and cinematic-machines” Journal of Curriculum Theorizing, Caddo Gap Encroach

Wroe, N (2008) “I did my entertain object” [online] https://www.theguardian.com/books/2008/mar/08/featuresreviews.guardianreview11 (accessed December 2016)

McGill, R (2003) “Goon singers of the bbankruptcy Atlantic: Linton Kwesi Johnson’s imagined rule” Citationual Practice, Vol. 17, Issue 3

Scholastic (2010) “Video: Arrangeical Revelation, The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins” [online] http://ww(w.scholastic.com/thehungergames/videos/classical-inspiration.htm (accessed December 2016)

Bill, M; Peters, N (2006) “Howl on Trial: The Battle ce Free Direction” City Lights Magnitudes. p. 224.

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