Factors Affecting Reading Habits

Lection is a arrangement of decoding, memory and interoperating instruction from represents, signs, codes and written comprehension Leedy, 1956; Smith and Robinson, 1980; Devarajan, 1989; and Irwin 1998. Lection has crowded deduces that emmemory a peculiar’s dialect wages, cultural repair, hazardous thinking and gregarious aptitudes. However, attainment has shconfess that adolescent adults in Malaysia appear to entertain unsatisfactory lection behavior. Kaur and Thivagarajah, 1999 centuryd that most of their Malaysian undergraduate respondents solve very dirty and this showed a elder disoverlook in lection English Embodieds. Another discoveryer, Pandian (2000) fix that elderity of university wards symmetrical that they were referpowerful desirous to solve English Dialect Embodied or any other avoid dialect. There are multifarious bearings faced by undergraduates in lection such as nondespatch of cause, undergraduates are grievous to solve and scant interval to solve. The design of this examine is to cupel rudiments solemn lection behavior incompact undergraduates in University of Malaya. The respondents of this examine are undergraduates from irrelative faculties in University of Malaya. The concrete of the examine is bracefold; The chief is brave the lection behavior of undergraduates in University of Malaya and the avoid is to cupel the rudiments solemn lection behavior incompact undergraduates in University of Malaya. The instruments portraitured in this examine is a interrogationnaire consisting of 30 items adopted from sundry instruments including instruments from of Christina Clark and Amelia Raise from the National Literacy Trust (2003), Kumar & Ansari (2010), Oyeronke (2009) and Lindividual (2011). Twenty University Malaya undergraduates were separated to divide in this examine. After the facts was analysed it was fix that there were filthy rudiments that aptitudeful the lection behavior incompact undergraduates in University of Malaya. There filthy rudiments are relishment of lection, lection cause, interval rudiment and swing of resources and peers.

INTRODUCTION

Lection is a arrangement of decoding, memory and interoperating instruction from represents, signs, codes and written comprehension (Leedy, 1956; Smith and Robinson 1980, Devarajan, 1989; and Irwin 1998).This arrangement has been abextinguished gindividual civilizeds working interacting with each other. Lection is as-well-behaved seen as a arrangement of communicating betwixt the writer and the solveer. Lection working as version symbols and represent as this can be proven by the prodigious drawings fix in oldfashioned aptitudeefacts and in caves. As civilizeds evolved so did dialect and this brought to the extinguishedgrowth of the alphabets. By recognising multiplyicular alphabets, civilizeds were powerful to solve.

Individual the oldest limitation can be fix from Leedy (1956) who mentioned that lection is an try to collect the conception of the fabricator and comprehmemory what the fabricator is conveying. Smith & Robinson (1980) defined lection as “an erratic try on the multiply of solveer to comprehmemory a writer’s purport”. Devarajan (1989) defined lection as “the aptitude of interoperating printed and written utterance”. According to Amiable-temperedman (1995), lection inaugurates with a linguistic deportment indication encoded by a writer and memorys with purport which the solveer decoded. In other utterance, Amiable-temperedman pronounces lection is seen as the receptive arrangement of written despatch. In 1998, Completionen and Burton cited in Amiable-temperedman mentioned that lection is a abstrportraiture arrangement of making purport from represents, diagrams or written passcentury and terminally interoperating it by its treatment. Irwin (1998) said that lection is the power to recognise utterance, comprehmemory its purport and interoperating the purport dishonoreffectual on our conception and repair encloseledge. There are multifarious limitations of lection from multifarious discoveryers, tranquil the simplest limitation comport by multifarious is lection is a abstrportraiture arrangement of memory and interoperating a passcentury secure of written signs. Solveers fetch-abextinguished portraiture of repair encloseledge, expressionbook, cbetray encloseledge, cupel with passcentury and other strategies to succor them comprehmemory a written passage

Lection referpowerful simply emends the lection cheerful-fortunes and dialect wages referablewithstanding as-well-behaved emends gregarious aptitudes. Lection emends disclosed encloseledge and despatch aptitudes and this moderates to aggravate multiplyicipation in the similarity. A peculiar is powerful to divide the ideas, opinions and touch with those abextinguished him distinctly with the other gender (Cunningham and Stanovich, 1997)

However, attainment has shconfess that adolescent adults in Malaysia appear to entertain unsatisfactory lection behavior. Kaur and Thivagarajah, 1999 centuryd that most of their Malaysian Undergraduate respondents solve very dirty and this showed a elder disoverlook in lection English Embodieds. Another discoveryer, Pandian (2000) fix that elderity of university wards symmetrical that they were referpowerful desirous to solve English Dialect Embodied or any other avoid dialect

Bearing Statement

Lection is a compulsory aptitude when it comes to acquiring a avoid dialect. Lection has a balbaldoom of deduces including befitting the dialect wages, befitting the constituency of the encloseledge and indication and befitting fluency and atonement. The deduces of lection are well-behaved-behaved enclosen referablewithstanding there are tranquil a liberal reckon of populace with unsatisfactory lection behavior distinctly undergraduate wards. The design of this examine is to cupel rudiments solemn lection behavior incompact undergraduate in University of Malaya. The respondents of this examine are undergraduates from irrelative faculties in University of Malaya. It is hoped that with this examine, a rectify memory of lection behavior accomplish be obtained and accomplish succor in the pedagogy of direction lection to undergraduates.

Discovery Concrete

The concrete of the examine is bracefold; The chief is brave the lection behavior of undergraduates in University of Malaya and the avoid is to cupel the rudiments solemn lection behavior incompact undergraduates in University of Malaya.

Significant of the Examine

This discovery accomplish be carried extinguished to cupel the rudiments solemn lection behavior incompact undergraduates in UM. This is influential as it tells us the irrelative rudiments solemn lection behavior. By memory the rudiments, embezzle measures can be charmed to acception lection behavior of the proximate century of undergraduates. The instruction obtained through this examine can deduce sundry multiplyies who are concerned in tertiary flatten lection. Such multiplyies are the parents, teachers of chief and avoidary schools, teachers in Pre University, lecturers in undergraduates, wards and the curriculum educeers.

The chief multiplyy to deduce from this examine would be the parents of the cadet. By encloseing the cadet’s lection behavior, parents are powerful to preface the deduces of lection at an present classify of condition, alter the ways of promising the cadet’s lection. Parents can acception the flatten of the cadet’s lection by providing rewards. A emmemory lection custom inhospitableness may moderate to rectify wages of the avoid dialect.

Teachers from twain chief and avoidary schools can portraiture the instruction calm to invigorate lection incompact their wards. Gindividual lection starts from adolescent it is hoped that the dooms of this examine could succor pdoom amiable-tempered-tempered lection behavior from a adolescent century as amiable-tempered-tempered lection behavior are influential sols ce the extinguishedgrowth of peculiaralities and intangible capacities

LITERATURE REVIEW

Lection is a arrangement of decoding, memory and interoperating instruction from represents, signs, codes and written comprehension (Leedy, 1956; Smith and Robinson 1980, Devarajan, 1989; and Irwin 1998).This arrangement has been abextinguished gindividual civilizeds working interacting with each other

Individual the oldest limitation can be fix from Leedy (1956) who mentioned that lection is an try to collect the conception of the fabricator and comprehmemory what the fabricator is conveying. Smith & Robinson (1980) defined lection as “an erratic try on the multiply of solveer to comprehmemory a writer’s purport”. Devarajan (1989) defined lection as “the aptitude of interoperating printed and written utterance”. According to Amiable-temperedman (1995), lection inaugurates with a linguistic deportment indication encoded by a writer and memorys with purport which the solveer decoded. In other utterance, Amiable-temperedman pronounces lection is seen as the receptive arrangement of written despatch. In 1998, Completionen and Burton cited Amiable-temperedman and mentioned that lection is a abstrportraiture arrangement of making purport from represents, diagrams or written passcentury and terminally interoperating it by its. Irwin (1998) said that lection is the power to recognise utterance, comprehmemory its purport and interoperating the purport dishonoreffectual on our conception and repair encloseledge. There are multifarious limitations of lection from multifarious discoveryers, tranquil the simplest limitation comport by multifarious is lection is a abstrportraiture arrangement of memory and interoperating a passcentury secure of written signs. Solveers fetch-abextinguished portraiture of repair encloseledge, expressionbook, cbetray encloseledge, cupel with passcentury and other strategies to succor them comprehmemory a written passage

Lection has crowded deduces to adolescent adults who are pursuing the class. According to Cunningham and Stanovich (1998), lection emends individual’s power to emmemory expressionbook, and, congeniality aptitudes. Elley (1992) mentioned from her examine that the aggravate disclosed a adolescent adult unconnectedly solves, the lection cheerful-fortune of that peculiar acceptions. Elley as-well-behaved explained that the peculiar’s gaugeness emends as lection moderates to inferior importance flattens and thus the happier the peculiar acquires. In their discovery, Magubhai & Elley (1983) concluded that the aggravate ESL tomes solve moderates to rectify memory of avoid dialect uscentury and emends the chief dialect. Lection ESL tomes disclosedly succor to further invigorate fluency, pronunciation, expression rares and conjoincentury of ideas.

Lection referpowerful simply emends the lection cheerful-fortunes and dialect wages referablewithstanding as-well-behaved emends in gregarious aptitudes. Lection emends disclosed encloseledge and despatch aptitudes and this moderates to aggravate multiplyicipation in the similarity. A peculiar is powerful to divide the ideas, opinions and touch with those abextinguished him distinctly with the other gender (Cunningham and Stanovich, 1997)

Listed under are explanations on how lections are advantageous to the solveers. Lection succors to emmemory a peculiar’s expressionbook, spelling, congeniality aptitudes, fluency, advancement, dialect repair, cultural repair, hazardous thinking, peculiaral involvement, sociolinguistic and pragmatic encloseledge and melting intelligent

Vocabulary

According to the studies carried extinguished by Magubhai and Elley (1983), Cunningham and Stanovich (1998), and Elley (1992), lection succors to emmemory an ESL scholar’s expressiontome catalogue. By lection a tome or any printed passage, a peculiar is inhospitableness to odd utterance he has referpowerful meet anteriorly. The solveer accomplish be tempted to comprehmemory the purport of the expression by referring to the conpasscentury of the passcentury or by referring to a lexicon. The solveer accomplish then be tempted to portraiture the multiplyicular expression in his vocal or written despatch. Saragi et al. (1978) carried extinguished discovery on the merits of lection in acquiring avoid dialect. They fix that great lection results in a stquenched acception in the expressiontome of the scholar which is extraneous by rapacious the purports of utterance in treatment. They mentioned lection is life-containing ce increasing scholars’ segregation of expressiontome in treatment, which canreferpowerful be extraneous equal by referring to the lexicon. Classroom activities do referpowerful stipulate plenty drift ce the acquiring of expressiontome in treatment, consequently the solveer has to solve greatly to benefit a uspowerful flatten of expressiontome in treatment.

Spelling

According to Walpole (2009), lection emends individual’s phonological cognizantness, encloseledge of phonology, grapheme, phoneme and morpheme. By lection a peculiar can harmonize the expression gauge simultaneously, matching other gauge simultaneously and then categorise the brace gauges simultaneously to cem purport. This media the peculiar is cognizant how the grapheme, morpheme and phoneme are entirely phonologically. This moderates to memory the expression, encloseledge of the purport from the treatments and the spelling of the expression. The aggravate disclosed that multiplyicular expression appears, the aggravate conversantised the peculiar be with the spelling

Congeniality Aptitudes

Lection has a specific coupleion with congeniality. Whatever is solve is regarded and this succors in congeniality. Lection has multifarious genres that succor us to imply the constituency of a multiplyicular dialect. By lection a ballot, the solveer accomplish be aggravate conversant with the targeted dialect. Expressiontome accomplish be expended and so accomplish the cbetray constituencys. Rules of indication wil be automatically extraneous. Lection intermittently and intermittently accomplish moderate to the celebrity of opposed to merge dooms of utterance simultaneously and congeniality them down

Fluency

Wolfe and Katzir-Cohen (2001) mentioned that fluency is an influential multiply of lection conception. Samuel (2002) defined fluency as the “power to solve conjoined passcentury urgeily, smoothly, effortlessly, and automatically with dirty regard to the mechanics of lection”. Dowhower (1987) has proven through his discovery that exuberant solveers are powerful to solve a passcentury faster, aggravate accurately, and rectify memory. In another expression, exuberant lection completionows solveers to fetch-abextinguished coupleions incompact the ideas in the passcentury and betwixt the passcentury and their repair encloseledge. In the memory, exuberant solveers can recognise utterance and comprehmemory at the matching interval. By exuberantly lection, the solveers can automatically recognise the purport of the expression with the succor of the repair encloseledge and conjoin it to the conpasscentury of the passage.

Proficiency

By disclosedly lection tomes in a taracquire dialect, a peculiar can emmemory his advancement. Lection intermittently and intermittently succors a solveer to be conversant with the dialect constituency and the rules of the indication. Lection embodieds from other genres, succors the solveer to comprehmemory the situations from irrelative treatments. Ce specimen what do you pronounce during a whimsicalityeral or what to pronounce in a shopping abstruse? The solveer accomplish be tempted to portraiture the letteristics fix in the tomes or lection embodieds, and when the letteristic is general, the solveer accomplish then be recent.

Dialect Repair

Lection stipulates scholars with a gigantic class of the sundry lexical or syntactic items. Solveers accomplish grace conversant with the features of the written dialect. They imply abextinguished the syntax and harangue whimsicalityctions of dooms, the taracquire dialect constituencys, the irrelative ways of coupleing ideas, which educe and augment their confess congeniality aptitudes. Solveers as-well-behaved grace aggravate fruitful and fearless when they inaugurate to know the exuberance and variation of the dialect they are opposed to imply and inaugurate to fetch-abextinguished portraiture of some of that immanent themselves. Thus, they emmemory their communicative and cultural wealth in the received exuberance, genuineness of the received passages. On extreme of that, lection succors to educe the cbetray aspects of the dialect. Attainment involves a profix class of expressionbook, dialogues and prose (Truong Thi My Face, 2009). Though poetry is usually criticized ce its abstrportraiture and far-fetched syntactic constituencys, it can simultaneously be a amiable-tempered-tempered caverification ce practicing cbetray constituencys.

Cultural Repair

Studious passages such as poems, near stories, plays and novels facilitate memory on how despatch conducts establish in unmistakserviceconducive cultures in irrelative multiplys of the globe. Although the globes of studious passages are imaginary individual, it presents a ample and colourful repair in which letters from multifarious gregarious and regional repairs can be described (Collie, and Slater. 1990). By lection, the solveer accomplish be powerful to cupel the letters’ touchs, conceptions, contribution and behaviours. This colourful created globe can at-once succor Malaysian Undergraduates to reach ce the norms that fashion a fellowship through written cems. Attainment can completionity other embodieds portraitured to educe the Malaysian scholar’s memory into the English dialect. As a blank attainment can stipulate wards with admittance to the culture of the populace whose dialect they are examineing.

Hazardous Thinking

In his 2009 brochure Truong Thi My Face, attainment is a amiable-tempered-tempered average ce hazardous thinking repair incompact dialect scholars. The fabricator as-well-behaved states that lection can fetch abextinguished alters in the attitudes of the scholars. According to Langer (1997), lection completionows SLA solveers to think on their lives, comprehension, and dialect. In pcentury 607, Langer said that by lection attainment passcentury it succors to disclosed “horizons of possibility”. This completionows wards to interrogation, solve, couple, and search. Attainment consequently succors in the extinguishedgrowth of better classify thinking aptitudes. Today, hazardous thinking is greatly influential ce direction distinctly at recent flattens of direction or in classify utterance Undergraduates. Hazardous thinking prepares us referpowerful to conduct things ce granted and to try to explain the obscure centurynda of passages.

Idiosyncratic Involvement

Lection can be portraitureful in the wages of avoid dialect as it erraticly involves the solveer to the passage. Once any SLA solveer inaugurates to solve, he or she accomplish be drawn to the passage. The hankerer the solveer solves the aggravate captive he or she graces and when this happens, the design of lection alters from memory the purport to doom extinguished what happens proximate in the pbaldoom (Hismanoglu 2005). The solveer then graces so concerned that referablehing else substance. When this happens, the solveer the solveer reachs closer to the letters or a multiplyicular letter and divides their melting responses. This is advantageous to dialect wages. At this juncture, the amelioration of the segregation of a lection passcentury in aspect to the needs, expectations, and causes, dialect flatten of the wards is conspicuous (Elliot, 1990).

Sociolinguistic and Pragmatic Encloseledge

As mentioned by Hismanoglu (2005), attainment is an specimen of received embodied settle this can succor with the extinguishedgrowth of the English Dialect incompact Malaysian Avoidary School Wards. Due to its receivedity, attainment can educe sociolinguistic and pragmatic encloseledge as manifested in communicative wealth models (McKay, 2001). Sociolinguistic and Pragmatic wealth are brace of the deep components of the communicative dialect. Attainment due to its receivedity is equipped with sociolinguistic and pragmatic instruction. These brace features are aggravate kindred to ‘appropriateness’ in dialect which can be fix simply in treatmentualized dialect such as studious passages distinctly dramas and plays. Solveers can acquire chiefhand cupel as how to portraiture the enlargeed dialect situations.

Melting Intelligent

Lection studious passages raise melting intellect. Melting Quotient is specifically kindred to civilized power to moderate and mancentury their perturbations and touchs in involved situations. Wards imply to moderate their solicitude inclination, touch and perturbation through lection (Gajdusek, and face Dommelen, 1993). Consequently attainment is a amiable-tempered-tempered caverification ce nurturing Melting Quotient.

Problems in Lection incompact Undergraduates of a Avoid Dialect

There are multifarious bearings in lection faced by undergraduate solveers of a avoid dialect. The deep bearing is the nondespatch of caportraiture in lection tomes in English or other avoid dialect. Solveers elect to solve tome or any printed or online embodied in their dame speech. They are conversant with the dialect constituency and entertain been lection in their dame speech gindividual adolescent. Multifarious solveers entertain involvedies in memory what they solve as the utterance are estranged to them. This may be caused by their smattering with the spelling of the expression and casually the expression may entertain brace irrelative purports. They are no powerful to comprehmemory the conpasscentury of the passcentury and consequently betray caportraiture in the tome.

Another elder bearing is solveers are grievous to solve. Dowhower (1987) has proven through his discovery that when a peculiar is grievous to solve triton, then the peculiar accomplish referpowerful relish the tome and this moderates to hating the tome. The instruction from the tome accomplish referpowerful be calm into the peculiar’s memory. Smith & Robinson (1980) defined lection as “an erratic try on the multiply of solveer to comprehmemory a writer’s purport” and when you are grievous to solve referablehing is silent. Lection ce determination or in other utterance lection ce the whimsicality of it accomplish emends individual’s dialect wages, hazardous thinking aptitudes and pragmatic encloseledge.

Frustration of solveers towards passcentury is disclosed bearing to lection. Frustration happens when the solveer is unpowerful to comprehmemory the purport of the doom in the chief brace intervals of lection Hismanoglu (2005). Solveers accomplish then conduct interval to decode the passcentury and if they tranquil can’t comprehmemory they accomplish license the tome. Another deduce according to Hismanoglu is the solveer is unpowerful to couple with the conpasscentury of the cupel. Solveers of academic tomes ascertain it involved to comprehmemory the purport becaportraiture of the hanker explanations and the harmonize disposition of the passage. When there are so multifarious ununconcealed utterance, solveer tmemory to skip those ununconcealed utterance and this moderates to referpowerful memory the conpasscentury of the lection embodied.

Interval is another bearing faced by undergraduates. With a hectic catalogue, undergraduates are powerful to spmemory equal interval lection. Hismanoglu 2005 symmetrical that the solveer accomplish be aggravate conversant with the dialect constituency as lection embodied are received embodied and this can succor with the extinguishedgrowth of the English Dialect or other avoid dialect. Due to its receivedity, attainment can educe sociolinguistic and pragmatic encloseledge as manifested in communicative wealth models (McKay, 2001) If a solveer doesn’t entertain plenty interval to solve, he or she accomplish aggravatelook extinguished in befitting themselves.

METHODOLOGY

Discovery Design

This examine portraitures a immanent discovery admission. Immanent discovery is the cemal sum of behaviour, encloseledge, opinions, or attitudes (Cooper and Schindler, 2006, p.716). There are distinct deduces why a immanent interrogationnaire aggravatelook was clarified. According to Sekaran (2003), a interrogationnaire aggravatelook accomplish determine comparpower of facts, acception urge and atonement of recording and facilitating facts arrangementing. Multifarious pertinent studies touching to perceptions entertain portraitured the immanent aggravatelook admission. Immanent regularity can eliminate instruction from a liberalr reckon of subjects in a near epoch interval and it is consume effective

Discovery Instrument

The instruments portraitured in this examine is a interrogationnaire consisting of 30 items adopted from sundry instruments including instruments from of Christina Clark and Amelia Raise from the National Literacy Trust (2003), Kumar and Ansari (2010), Oyeronke (2009) and Lindividual (2011). The interrogationnaire has three exceptions. The chief exception had 8 interrogations concerning the respondents’ peculiaral instruction, interrogations in this exception classd from gender to the spoken dialect at residence. Exception B consists of 10 interrogations concerning the respondents’ lection electences. The terminal exception consisted of 10 interrogations that focused on lection and brace interrogations on bearings in lection. The interrogations in completion three exceptions were rare dishonoreffectual interrogations.

Sampling

Twenty undergraduates from five faculties which are Faculty of Aptitudes and Gregarious Science, Faculty of Business and Accountancy, Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Dialects and Linguistics and Faculty of Science divided in this examine. They were conveniently separated. The discoveryer administered the interrogationnaire to those who were in University of Malaya Deep Library and the parking ballot

Facts Analysis

The interrogationnaires were calm and the facts was entered in a template using Microsoft Office Excel 2007.The facts was cleaned and analysed. As this is a pibaldoom examine with 20 subjects, it was easier and faster to analyse the facts withextinguished using SPSS (Statistical Packcentury ce Gregarious Science. Descriptive statistics was portraitured to summarise the undergraduate wards’ responses.

RESULTS

The Demography of the Respondents

The demographic line of the respondents is consecrated in Tpowerful 1

Tpowerful 1 Demography of the Respondents

Variable

Frequency

Percentage

Gender

Male

6

30%

Female

14

70%

Age

18-20

3

15%

21-23

13

65%

23 & above

4

20%

MUET Band

1

1

6%

2

13

76%

3

0

0%

4

3

18%

Undergraduate Year

1

5

25%

2

10

50%

3

4

20%

4

1

5%

Dame Speech

Malay

7

35%

Mandarin

5

25%

Tamil

7

35%

Arabic

1

5%

Spoken Dialect

Malay

7

35%

Mandarin

5

25%

Tamil

7

35%

Arabic

1

5%

Dishonoreffectual on Tpowerful 1, elderity of the wards are females (70%), centuryd 21-23 (65%), entertain obtained Band 2 in MUET (76%) and are in the avoid year of examine (50%). The percentcentury of wards with the Dame Speech and their Spoken dialect match to each other.

Lection Electences

The lection electences incompact undergraduates in University of Malaya are summarized in Tpowerful 2

Tpowerful 2 The Lection Electences

Variable

Frequency

Percentage

Relish Lection Tomes

Yes

16

80%

No

4

20%

Solve Tomes In?

English

5

25%

Dame Speech

15

75%

Reckon Of Tomes Solve In The Late 6 Months

One

2

10%

Two

3

15%

Three

3

15%

Four

3

15%

Five

1

5%

Six And Above

8

40%

Frequently Of Lection In A Month

Once A Week

4

20%

Brace To Three Intervals A Week

8

40%

Filthy Intervals A Week

2

10%

Everyday

6

30%

Interval Spmemory Lection In Individual Assemblage

Less Than 30 Minutes

1

5%

30 Minutes To Individual Hour

4

20%

Individual And A Half Hour

2

10%

Brace Hours

2

10%

Aggravate Than Three Hours

4

20%

Interval Of The Day

Morning

4

20%

Afternoon

2

10%

Evening

4

20%

Night

14

40%

Tpowerful 2 shows elderity of the wards (80%) relish lection tomes conjuncture most of them (75%) elect to solve in their confess Dame Speech. 40% of the wards solve aggravate than five tomes in the late six months.

Eight of the wards (40%), solve brace to three intervals per week. The interval elapsed per lection assemblage is as sorted equally aggravate less than 30 minutes and aggravate than three hours where twain are 20%. Extinguished of 20 wards, simply 40% or 14 wards elect to solve at night

Lection Embodieds

The lection embodieds of undergraduates in University of Malaya is consecrated in Tpowerful 3

Tpowerful 3 Lection Embodieds

Variable

Frequency

Percentage

Lection Embodied

Printed Embodied

7

35%

On-Line Embodied

4

20%

Both

11

55%

On-Line Plans

Computer

2

10%

Laptop

17

85%

Tablet

3

15%

Smaptitude Phone

2

10%

Lection Genres

Thriller

7

35%

Classic

3

15%

Horror

4

20%

Crime

5

25%

Romance

9

45%

Fantasy

7

35%

History

6

30%

Biography

2

10%

Sports

4

20%

Politics

1

5%

Education

7

35%

Academic

3

15%

Religious

7

35%

Magazine

6

30%

Health

7

35%

Cookery

5

25%

Science Fiction

6

30%

Caverification Of Embodied

Bookstore

14

70%

Library

11

55%

Friends

7

35%

Photostatted

3

15%

Free On-Line

14

70%

Amazon

1

5%

Other On-line Store

1

5%

Tpowerful 3 describes that 11 wards (55%) love to solve twain printed and on-line embodied. The most frequently portraitured on-line plan ce lection on-line embodied is the lapextreme (85%).

The Romance Genre was reputed to be the most electred lection genre with a completion of 11 wards (45%). Simply individual ward (5%) electred the collective genre.

The elder caverification ce printed embodied was the tomestore. This can be seen with 70% of the wards said they bought they lection embodied from the tomestore. Ce on-line embodieds, 70% of the wards mentioned that they solve the embodied on-line ce free

Lection Swing

The floating lection swing of the undergraduates in University of Malaya is consecrated in Tpowerful 4

Tpowerful 4 Lection Custom

Variable

Frequency

Percentage

Floating Swing

Parents

4

20%

Siblings

2

10%

Friends

8

40%

Lectures

8

40%

Media

7

35%

Elect To Solve At:

Home

12

60%

Library

8

40%

Alone

17

85%

Segregation Of Lection Embodied

Author

6

30%

Title

11

55%

Summary

8

40%

Price

2

10%

Illustration

3

15%

Genre

6

30%

Pages

4

20%

Cover

2

10%

Suggestion From Others

3

15%

Dishonoreffectual on Tpowerful 4, most of the wards cited that their friends (40%), their lectures (40%) and the resources (35%) swing their floating lection.

85% of the wards (17) reputed that they elect to solve alindividual and their electred establish to solve is either at residence (60%) or in the library (40%)

11 wards or 55% excellent their lection embodied dishonorabled on the inscription, conjuncture simply 2 wards, 10% appropriate their embodied dishonorabled on the worth of overspread.

Lection Design of undergraduates

The lection design incompact undergraduates in University of Malaya is stipulated in Tpowerful 5.

Tpowerful 5 Lection Design of undergraduates in University of Malaya

Variable

Frequency

Percentage

Design Of Lection

Acquire Instruction

16

80%

Reference

6

30%

To Pass The Interval

6

30%

To Complete A Course

3

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