Engineering Systems and Components of Centrifuge


The ocean fruit of the level decanter centrifuge is to disunited embodieds of irreferring-to densities. In this expirationhod, the centrifuge is required to disunited the olive gloze from instil and any other valids such as stones.

The decanter centrifuge (Figure 1) is multiply of the olive presser’s conduct-aparterre cord made up of four ocean implements: de-leafing washing, olive crushing mill, level malaxer, and the centrifuge. Figure 1 shows diminutive what the conduct-aparterre cord consists of.

The inputs into the centrifuge are olives which feel undergundivided a estimate of rulees through the other ocean implements of the olive presser conduct-aparterre cord. These ruleed olives are referred to as cake. This cake is the input of the decanter centrifuge and contains stone, instil, other chemical additives, and gloze.

The centrifuge rights the concept of sedimentation to disunited the cake into ‘heavy’ mellifluous and ‘light’ mellifluous, the ‘lighter’ mellifluous substance the olive gloze, which is the quenchedput required from the expirationhod. Basically, imputable to the contrariety in densities the cake and gloze accomplish disunited naturally sturdy adapted era (the gloze floats on extreme of the cake). The centrifuge accelerates up this rule using excellent reversional accelerates, exerting up to 4000G on the cake. This is accelerationful gundivided a rule that would seize hours to conclude could bechance in a stuff of seconds. The centrifuge moves at excellent accelerates, terminationing in the disjunction of the deviation among the centrifuge according to their blindness, wholeowing the olive gloze to be retrieved from the expirationhod [1].


Overview of Production
The cake is input to the expirationhod through a fine entrance tube encased in a straggle stem. This stem has an Archimedean contortion, i.e. the scroll, welded to it. The stem coincidently with the scroll is projectated the carryor, and it is encased in a peg. The stem, and thus to-boot the scroll is coagulated by a motor & pulley expirationhod. The cake runs into the scroll area where disjunction of the olive gloze from the cake arises imputable to the excellent G’s generated by reversion and the deviate at undivided object of the scroll. The olive gloze and dwindle are quenchedput through nozzles at irreconcilable objects of the centrifuge peg.
The centrifuge is sturdy to the compel using a pillowly fill appearance. The compel aids the completion of the expirationhod.

Basic Sizing & Capabilitys

By comparesonance to tangible centrifuges, the optimal peg crossing and reversional accelescold are 425 mm, and 3800 RPM relatively. A 1:4 project huskred (peg crossing compared to the peg tediousness) is adopted, terminationing in a centrifuge tediousness of 1700 mm [2]. A shore deviate of 200 is seizen, as explained in Appendix 1.

Specification Sheet

Centrifuge Peculiarations

Centrifuge Mark

Two-phase; Level

Acme Aggravatewhole Tediousness

3 m

Acme Aggravatewhole Width

1.5 m

Acme Aggravatewhole Height

1.5 m

Input Scold

450 kg/h

Centrifuge RPM


Centrifuge Shore Deviate


Centrifuge peg crossing

425 mm

Centrifuge crossing to tediousness huskred


Centrifuge Tediousness

1700 mm

Centrifuge stem exterior crossing

120 mm

Tree Diagram

The succeedingcited tree diagram is a graphical resemblance of the centrifuge and its sub-systems. Please deviate aggravate to asincontrovertible the aloft mentioned tree diagram.

Fill Diagram

The succeedingcited fill diagram is a graphical resemblance of how the centrifuge fruits in direct to select the gloze from the olives. This graphical resemblance accomplish collect a melioscold interpretation of how the sub-systems interimpress with undivided another. Please deviate aggravate control the aloft mentioned fill diagram.


Brief excomposition of the clarified ingredients

Push Compel (Figure 2): A tray to which the motor is bolted down to cling in composition. It is sturdy to the legs of the centrifuge inferior casing. It determines the prolixity betwixt the stem of the motor and stem of the centrifuge.

Figure 2: Push Compel

Centrifuge Compel (Figure 3): The aggravatewhole compel of the decanter, this aids the perfect construction of the centrifuge.

Figure 3: Centrifuge Compel

Upper Casing (Figure 4): The Upper casing covers the peg of the centrifuge. It fills contaminants from making continuity with the peg and restricts the rightr of the implement from making continuity with melting multiplys, providing melioscold insurance.

Figure 4: Upper Casing

Inferior Casing (Figure 5): The inferior casing impresss as a collector control the issues liberated from the rotating conduct-aparterre and raptures them to receivers control coercionward handling. The casing has to detain these disunitedd entities privately. So it can be concluded that the casing as an gloze collector at undivided object and a cake libescold collector at the conical cause.

Figure 5: Inferior Casing

Satisfy Tube (Figure 6): A tube that the cake is raptureed to the centrifuge from the malaxer. This is to-boot the input of the centrifuge. Its interior crossing is stable by its required input run scold.

Figure 6: Satisfy Tube

3-phase Motor (Figure 7): The motor collects the primal torque required to move the encompass. The motor clarified is the AEG AM 132M ZA4*[3], a 3-phase motor which collects 7.5kW of compatability, with the possibility of increasing the compatability up to 9.2kW through a fine variation, making this a pliable valuable.

Figure 7: 3-Phase Motor

Encompass (Figure 8): The Estateless encompass connects the pulley of the 3-phase motor and the centrifuge peg coincidently, transferresonance compatability. The clarified Estateless-encompass is a Polyamide A-3c encompass gundivided it collects the misspobject besottedness, lawful stretch, and cocausative of grating, conjuncture to-boot substance misspobject control the insufficiency pulley crossing.

Pulley (Figure 8): The pulley is rightd to disagree the accelescold of the peg and is alike to the motor.

Key: A 8 x 10 mm across solution 70 mm covet is adventitious to the motor pulley in direct to fabricate indisputable that the pulley depends coincidently with the motor stem in such a habit that there is no referring-to disturbance betwixt the couple.

Figure 8: Encompass and Pulley

Encompass Secureor (Figure 9): The aim of the encompass secureor is to secure the encompass and pulley expirationhod from any accidents. It thwarts continuity of the encompass with any controleign objects by rest them from enteresonance the encompass area externally remelting the secureor nobleest. This may thwart injuries and breakages.

The secureor to-boot detains the encompass area pure from any residual dregs generated duresonance the rule. It can be bigly removed control oceantenance and pureing.

Figure 9: Encompass Secureor

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Figure 10: Peg shell with Archimedes grasp among

Drum: The peg (Figure 10) is a cylindrical tube with flanges at twain objects. At undivided object, the mellifluous libescold peg hub, this is where mellifluouss are liberated from the centrifuge, conjuncture on the other caright the cake libescold hub is alike, this is where valids are liberated from the centrifuge. The disjunction medium reaches its acme accelescold in the decanter peg. This causes the valids to calm on the mole of the pegs interior crossing. This is whole a termination of the excellent centrifugal controlce, which impresss on the multiplyicles.

Undivided conspicuous mark of the peg is its tapered figure. This tapered figure is referred to as the shore. The shore is a conical individuality at the object of peg. It has this conical figure to exert joined controlce on the valids, heresucceeding squeezing quenched the decisive drops of mellifluous. In this multiply of the rule the centrifugal controlce butt the valids uphill. This project accelerations to raise the valids aloft the instilcord in the libescold berth.


Figure 11: Appearance Setup [2]

Face hub appearances: This level setup (Figure 11) is cherished by the right of appearances which are predicamentd in a pillowly fill. Appearances are rightd to narrow grating and the proceeds brought on the ingredient through hollowly and shatter. This appearance rightd in this conduct-aparterre is a roller appearance. The roller appearance is a appearance in which the ocean advise is communicated through elements in rolling continuity.

Pillowly Fill: The indispensable impression of the pillowly fill is to ascpurpose the appearance safely, which enables the appearances exterior resonance to be immovable, conjuncture the appearance interior resonance to move. The appearance is cherished in a housing and confirmed with a non-contacting flinger. This non-contacting flinger is a confirm, as the spectry implies it does referable succeed into continuity with the stem. Its ocean impression is to detain lubricants and oil from escaping, conjuncture at the homogeneous era it accelerations detain instil, remains and other contaminants that could be hurtful, quenched of the appearance conduct-aparterre. It does this with the acceleration of the centrifugal controlce.

Contradiction hub Appearances: The contradiction hub appearance conduct-aparterre is homogeneous to that of the face hub. Its ocean fruit is to aid undivided caright of the carryer. This appearance to-boot resists the axial push of the scroll.

Figure 12: Generated 3D Resemblance of Carryor.

Conveyer: The carryer (Figure 12) is a convenient hub with a rectilineal helix welded to it. The carryer is in the figure of an Archimedes grasp penny among the peg, betwixt the 2 object hubs. This carryer accomplish feel a fine colliquation in relative to the peg. It ocean fruit is to raise valids which feel calmd abutting the moles of the peg, then butting these valids towards the shore where they can be liberated. Its ocean functions are to carry the valids succeeding they controlm a cake, recognize the satisfy and accelerates it up to the peg accelerate. The embodied rightd is EN 1.4571 which is a controlm of excellent accelescold steel (HSS). The carryer is the rapture instrument in a decanter centrifuge. The carryer moves with a irreferring-to accelescold in relative to the peg, after raptureing the calmd valids towards the conical figure of the peg. To-boot, the accelescold at which the carryer moves in relative to the peg defines how covet a valid spends in the peg. The cast of the carryer is akin to the rapture execution of the centrifuge [2].

This carryor is modeblame of couple ocean sub-components; the scroll, and the stem. The scroll is welded to the stem, which moves. Conjuncture the couple explicitly want to be implementd disunitedly and welded coincidently control economic reasons, they accomplish be considered as a transgressiongly multiply; the carryor.

Calculations Nomenclature

Variable (Motor)







Angular quickness

Variable (Flow)





Cross-Sectional Area of segment


Tediousness of segment


Blindness of cake

Variable (Belt)



Driver/Motor pulley crossing


Driven/Stem crossing


RPM of stem


RPM of motor pulley


Deviate of continuity control stem


Deviate of continuity control motor pulley


Prolixity betwixt centres


Besottedness of encompass


Wirth of encompass


Tediousness of encompass


Peculiar ponderosity of encompass


Blindness of encompass


Volume of encompass


Mass per item tediousness of encompass


Radius of pulley


Rotational Quickness


Centrifugal controlce on encompass


Stretch in firm caright of encompass


Stretch in detached caright of encompass


Primal controlce required to aggravatesucceed grating


Cocausative of grating


Unimportant controlce of encompass on stem

Variable (Deflection)



Young’s modulus of embodied


Moment of Inertia of stem


Deflection in stem

Variable (Bearings)



Ponderosity of carryor


Security exerted on stem by encompass


Reresuscitation at appearance A


Reresuscitation at appearance B

Variable (Shaft)


Bending Stress

Shear Stress


Acme Bending Moment


Exterior radius of stem


Moment of Inertia of shat


Torque applied


Polar Moment of Inertia


Exterior radius of stem


Interior radius of stem

Calculations and Sizing

Embodied Selection

Gundivided the implement accomplish fabricate continuity with biological embodieds, incontrovertible characteristics and capabilitys feel to be expiration in direct to enindisputable that the multiplys making up the centrifuge accomplish referable chemically modify or concern the issue in anyway. A schedule of embodieds eligible control help ruleing has been compiled by the FDA, established in the US. The 6th harping of this mode, released in 2013, gives peculiar capabilitys with respects to embodieds rightd in help-continuity surfaces of equipment in section 4, submultiply 4-101.11. Among these capabilitys are canker hindrance and durability. Consideresonance this, the embodied clarified control whole the multiplys that accomplish succeed into continuity with the issue; spectryly the centrifuge and its casing; the clarified embodied is EN 1.4571 Stainless Steel, which gratefully fits whole withhold capabilitys. [4]


Calculations to asincontrovertible motor required

Aim: To asincontrovertible the torque required to deviate the stem at a accelescold of 3800 RPM, which has been stable to be optimal control this implement (Figure 13) and thus asincontrovertible the compatability wanted and an misspobject motor.


Figure 13: 3D diagram of compatability transmission expirationhod

Imputable to the compound proceeds of limpid run on the hindrance to deviateing, the required torque control production accomplish be build by back engineeresonance a homogeneous expirationhod.

HAUS Centrifuge Technologies yield a level decanter centrifuge that has a acme RPM of 5400, and utilizes a motor with a compatability quenchedput of 11 kW that can rule up to environing 1 m3/hr of embodied [5]. This is adaptedly homogeneous to the expirationhod substance discussed in this narration and can thus be rightd to back engineer the torque capabilitys duresonance courteous-mannered-regulated avow.

Using the equation Pdrum = Tdrumω, the required torque may be build.

Thus, the required compatability control the expirationhod accomplish be:

Gundivided the back engineered expirationhod totalitys control compatability losses imputable to inefficiencies and other eventors, as courteous-mannered-mannered as the event that that expirationhod has an aggravatewhole bigr ruleing compatability, the required compatability treasure obtained can be antecedent to neglectly bigr than the penny insufficiency capability. Eventually, this accomplish totality control any compatability losses duresonance transmission as courteous-mannered-mannered as any germinative extra compatability demands.


The clarified motor is the AEG AM 132M ZA4*. This has a acme of 1440 RPM and 9.2 kW of compatability, with an aptitude of 87% when frank at 100% RPM, and a ponderosity of 56kg. This is a variation of the AM 132M ZA4 motor, which transgressiongly yields 7.5 kW of compatability [3].

The AM 132M ZA4* is a 4-pole, 3-phase motor, transgressiongly-accelescold push. The motor has a transgressiongly push and is an incontemporaneous mark motor with an Aluminium compel. It to-boot has an IP 55 rating, making it subordinately dense to uncleanness, dregs, and instil; a accelerationful possessions control this right predicament, where spillages and leakages may arise.

The motor creator to-boot specifies that the clarified motor has a stem crossing of 38 mm, and a solution of 10 x 8 mm should be rightd control any pulleys, with the solutionhabit substance 5 mm learned and 10 mm big. The solution should feel a tediousness of 70 mm [3].

Calculations control the sizing of the entrance tube

Aim: To asincontrovertible the required bigness of the entrance tube so that an misspobject aascpurpose of embodied accomplish be input at an misspobject accelerate.


Figure 14: Diagram of run in entrance pipe

It must nobleest be secured that the run scold in the entrance tube (Figure 14) accomplish be adapted to wholeow control the project peculiarations. In this predicament, the project is fixed as having an input scold of 450 kg/hr.

It is antecedent that the cake accomplish feel a blindness, ρ­cake of almost 2000 kg m-3. Thus, the misspobject interior radius may be build.

Converting the input scold to m3/hr: m3/hr. This terminations in 6.225×10-5 m3 s-1 run scold.

Control a expirationhod of this husk, the run quickness is generally in the file of 0.5 to 2 ms-1. Control the purpose of calculations, it accomplish be antecedent that an misspobject quickness control this peculiar expirationhod accomplish be 1ms-1.


Cross Individualityal Pipe Area =

Area = πr2, therefore = 4.46 x 10-3 m.

Thus, an interior radius of 5mm can be clarified. This accomplish termination in a neglect subside in run quickness, (down to 0.8 ms-1), eventually this is courteous-mannered-mannered among the spiritual file. Seeing as this pipe accomplish endure no torque and very diminutive controlces, a test 2mm besottedness can be seizen.

Compatability Transmission

­The centrifuge stem is required to be coagulated at a continuous accelerate. The advise is stable oceanly by run and aascpurpose of cake in the expirationhod, which are inferior through a rule dundivided by another expirationhod. Thus, the advise on the expirationhod may be antecedent to be bigly immutable. The torque required is to-boot referring-toly lowly.

As such, a encompass and pulley expirationhod is an misspobject valuable control push transmission. This is cheaper than a goods retinue, and is to-boot easier to oceantain and re-establish if required. This to-boot narrows the bigness of the perfect conduct-aparterre, as the motor may be placed laterally, with the stems substance correlative to each other.

A estateless encompass is clarified aggravate a V-belt. Conjuncture the wedging resuscitation of a V-encompass resources that over compatability can be infectious, estateless encompasss are over causative, having a 98% aptitude. Estateless encompasss to-boot generally feel a coveter fruit estate. Most importantly, estateless encompasss may be rightd across big centre prolixitys, dissimilar V-belts. Thus, imputable to the structure of the setup a estateless encompass expirationhod is over misspend. [6]

The bigr pulley must to-boot be completeed (tortuous neglectly) so the encompass may be kept tracking centred on the pulley [7].

Flat-Encompass Calculations

Aim: To analyse the controlces impressing upon the encompass, determining grating and stretch imputable to infectious torque, in direct to asincontrovertible controlces and stresses on the stems.

Assumption: A polyamide A-3ᶜ estateless encompass with besottedness 3.3mm is rightd to count the controlces introduce [8].
Figure 15: Diagram of encompass and pulley expirationhod

The exterior crossing of the centrifuge stem has been clarified to be 120 mm. To asincontrovertible the selfselfsame motor pulley crossing, D (Figure 15) required in direct to depend the centrifuge at the required 3800 RPM, magnificent the motor accomplish deviate at its scoldd accelescold of 1440 RPM, the succeedingcited relativeship is rightd.
dn1 = Dn2

Where n­1 ­­and n2 are the RPMs of the relative stem

0.123800 = D1440

D = 315.57 mm

This accomplish be approximated to 0.316 m (or 12.5 inches), the closest test pulley bigness. Control this bigness, the complete of the pulley should be 1 mm excellent [9].

Determining the deviates implied [8]:

= transgression-1() = 0.197ᶜwhere C = 500mm

d = Ï€ – 2sin-1() = 2.747ᶜ

D = π + 2sin-1() = 3.536ᶜ

Tediousness of encompass, L = = 1.704m

Besottedness and width of encompass, t = 3.3mm

b = 75mm (test encompass width – clarified arbitrarily)

peculiar ponderosity of encompass, η = 0.042lbf/in3 = 1162.56kg/m3

Volume of encompass = t x b x l

= 75 x 3.3 x 1704

= 421.74 x 103 mm3

Mass of encompass = ρV = 1162.56 x 4.2174 x 10-4m3 = 0.49kg

Mass per item tediousness of encompass, m = = 0.2877kgm-1

It can be shown that:

From dS = mr2ω dθ where dS, is the controlce imputable to centrifugal controlce

= FC dθ

This implies FC = mr2ω2

= = 163.34N

The contrariety in stretch betwixt the 2 causes of the encompass is sturdy by:

ΔF = F1 – F2 = = 109.3N

Control primal stretch Fi,

Equating Fi with the controlce required to aggravatesucceed grating

Fi = – T2 eμθ from grating equation T1 = T2 eμθ

The denying premonition indicates that this is the controlce that must be aggravatecome.

To asincontrovertible F1 and F2 , Stretch in the encompass where T1 is the bigst stretch, to be FI

μ = 0.8

θD = 3.536C

T2 = F2

Since, F2 = Fi + FC

F2 = -F2 e0.8 x 3.356 + FC

F2 = – F2 e0.8 x 3.356 + 163.34 –

1 – e0.8 x 3.356 F2 = 163.34 –

Therefore, F2 =

ΔF = F1 – F2

109.3 = F1 – 6.06

Therefore, F1 = 115.36N

Finding the radial terminationant controlce on the stem,

It can be antecedent that the controlce accomplish impress almost radially control the purpose of calculations.

By geometry θ = transgression-1 = 0.197c = 11.3o
Figure 16: Diagram showing controlces impressing on pushr pulley

Solving levelly (Figure 16):

(115.36 cos 11.3) + (163.34) + (6.06 cos 11.3) = 282.40N

Solving vertically:

(6.06 transgression 11.3) – (115.3 transgression 11.3) = -21.42N

FR = = 283.45N

α = tan-1 = 4.34o

Calculating FC control the fineer pulley

using the equation FC = mr2ω2

=> FC = = 164N

Gundivided FC control the bigger pulley = 163.3N, the terminationant controlce FR accomplish be almost the homogeneous as previously build control bigger pulley.

The clarified encompass has an lawful stretch per item width of ~ 31 N/mm, thus the clarified encompass may resist a stretch up to 2325 N. Thus, the clarified encompass is misspendly bignessd to

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