Chapter Outline

Explain how a system of racial segregation was established in the South: Since populism failed in the south, it Was open to the induction Of a new racial order.

As much of Reconstruction was undone as possible by the Redeemers, so called because they believed they saved the region from alleged misgovernment and impending “black rule. ” New laws were created that jailed anyone without a job, and the punishment for petty crimes was increased tenfold. Of course, the black population suffered the greatest after this.Then, convict laboring became popular which basically put blacks right back into slavery. Blacks continued to be denied high paying jobs, but a black idle class began to arise in the urban communities consisting of people with professions such as teachers and professors. Blacks in politics declined also, though not abruptly. They eventually lost their right to vote.

In Please v. Ferguson it was made legal to segregate public places.

Lynching also rose in popularity again.Describe what ways the boundaries of American freedom grew narrower in this period: At the end of the 19th century, the thought process of Americans changed quite a bit, towards the idea that freedom should not be offered equally, only to the right and supposed deserving people. An Ohio newspaper stated that the influx of immigrants was overrunning cities, and that they “have no appreciation of the true meaning of liberty. ” Most of the immigrants in this period came from Italy, Russia, Status-Hungarian empires, and other countries in Southern and eastern Europe.Immigrants were looked down upon as horrible excuses for people who are inclined to steal and commit crime from birth.

People started to look for a way to limit the rights of these people, and also prevent more from entering. In Boston, the immigration restriction league was formed and proposed that literacy would be required o enter the country. This was adopted by many states. Blacks also continued to see less and less rights in the South, as well as disenfranchisement. Suffrage was becoming more Of a privilege in America, instead Of a right.Explain how the United States emerged as an imperial power in the 1 ass’s: America started out slow as government officials and business owners decided the land and resources they had weren’t enough. At first, proposals to annex other countries were vetoed and over-sea focus remained mostly on trade.

Then, a group of late nineteenth century thinkers proposed an idea of updated manifest destiny, and that the most beneficial thing to do for the world was to impose the Anglo-Saxon traditions on uncivilized societies and turn them into consumers of American goods.This was outlined in the book Our Country by Josiah Strong. Alfred T. Amman took advantage of the time at which western expansion ended, as all land was finally claimed by a state. He published a book that urged American expansion to move onboard because we could no longer capitalize on our own land. This book influenced James Blaine, secretary of state during the presidency of Harrison. Harrison quested the construction of four new battleships, while Blaine encouraged the president to push for Hawaii, Puerco Rice, and Cuba to be set up as naval bases.

The depression further exacerbated these ideas and plunged the country into a period of aggressive nationalism, where newspapers containing sentiments of nationalism views sold like hotcakes. Vocabulary: The Farmer’s Alliance – Farmer’s in the early 1 ass’s felt disenfranchised, so they banded together to aid each other. Spread across 43 states. The Populist Party – Evolved from the farmers alliance, except it included all working classes. Their platform still remains a classic American document. They sought to redefine the idea of freedom in the contemporary government.It attracted many followers, including a large number of women who wanted suffrage, and a small number of blacks.

Populist Platform – Consisted of six main items: 1. Direct election Of Senators 2. Government control of currency 3. A graduated income tax 4. Low cost public financing for farmers 5. Legalize unionizing 6. Public ownership of railroads William J.

Bryan -Second candidate chosen by populists for president. He was supported by democrats as well and ran as democrat even. He condemned the gold standard, and advocated free silver and unrestricted minting of silver money.He hoped it would help relieve farmer debts. He was also devoutly religious. Coccyx’s Army – A band of several hundred unemployed men led by Ohio businessman Jacob Coxes demanding economic relief. They marched to D.

C. Where they were forced to disperse by soldiers. Pullman Strike -? Workers in a company owned town called Pullman called a strike due to low wages. The idea spread and the boycott called by the American Railway Joint crippled national rail service, government injunctions ere imposed to force laborers to work. Eugene V.Debs – Charismatic leader of the rail-workers union and the Pullman strike, was jailed for contempt of court. On his release, 1 00,000 people greeted him, and he called them lovers of liberty.

He said that state and national government was going to take from the weak their birthright of freedom. Free Silver – Unrestricted minting of silver money, Supported by Bryan because he hoped to circulate more money to aid farmers. Election of 1 896 – Won by William McKinley, the republican candidate. Bryan who represented the democrats lost by about 6 million votes.Bryan is noted to have driven many republicans to McKinley because of Bran’s call for inflation and speeches against corporate arrogance. Northeast and Midwest industrial states voted republican, while less populous states voted for Bryan which is why he lost. William McKinley – Former Ohio governor and republican, won the election of 1896.

His campaign manager Hanna created a political machine that flooded the states with pamphlets and other propaganda. The Redeemers – Claimed to have redeemed the southern region of misgovernment and black rule. They were able to impose their racial order u to the failure Of populism in the south.When they gained power they quickly undid as much as they were able of Reconstruction. New laws incarcerated people for the simplest of crimes, and then convicts were bought and sold and used as a cheap form of labor, much like slavery. The Kansas Exodus – 50,000 blacks migrated to Kansas in the belief they would find political equality, freedom from violence, access to education and economic opportunity. Pap singleton handed out flyers portraying Kansas as a utopia.

However, most blacks didn’t have the capital to farm so they ended up getting stuck there with low paying jobs.Decline of Black Politics and voting – Black people gave up their interest in politics after reconstruction, and they sought more fulfilling careers in business, law, or the church. This turned out to be their worst mistake because then their voting was taken away in the south as soon as it possible. Poll taxes and other voter restrictions were enacted that were aimed at blacks but still lawful. Jim Crow Laws – State and local laws mandating De cure racial segregation in Southern states. Examples: Created the poll taxes, literacy tests, and the grandfather clause.

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