CAD/CAM Analysis of Football

CAD/CAM Rediscerption Post Module Provision

 

Computer Aided Delineation (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) impress befit discerption as-wellls to engineers peremptorily ce delineationing innovating chattelss in provisions of their wholesale resort, observe and impress, administrativeity, serviceability and division. Since 1998, a innovating province of engineering has been recognised as an academic punishment, that of Diversions Engineering, which examines the interactions betwixt humans, diversions equipment and the environment. Diversions Engineers standpoint on the administrativeity, galaxy and division of the equipment and comaspect closely with Chaffering specialists to detail that, whilst consultation administrative modifications, chattelss as-well-behaved iteme aesthetic modifications (What is Diversions Engineering? 2017). Specific diversion that has applied CAD/CAM technology indiscriminately is baseball.

2.1 The Enlargement of Diversions Engineering

The enlargement of diversions engineering was fuelled by an enlargement in consumer expense on diversion in the UK which exceeded £15 billion in 2001 (Emblem 1). Equipment and habit, usually associated with diversions engineering, accounted ce £4.5 of consumer expense (Emblem 1). In the UK, cacorrection in diversion was driven by the vast televising of baseball. Enlargements in legislation expense on diversion as-well-behaved boosted sales of equipment and drapery. Sale of diversions equipment grew by elapsed than 30% betwixt 2000 and 2005 (Emblem 2.) This was elapsed than inclose that restraintetelled ce sales of other issue (Haake 2002).

Emblem 1. Breakdown of UK consumer lavishing on diversion (Haake 2002).

Emblem 2. Enlargement in diversion assimilated to the enlargement in public consumer lavishing. (Haake 2002).

2.2 Baseglobe Delineation

Increased televising of baseglobe has led to enlargementd sifting of a baseball’s operation and the sumity that they wander during exodus, chiefly during Cosmos-people Cups (Haake 2002).  This provision standpointses on the contact of CAD/CAM technologies in the chattels of baseballs.

Board 1 details some of the CAD/CAM as-wellls and technologies that rest. Some of these impress the germinative to applied to baseglobe delineation and devlopment.

Technology

CAD / CAM

2D / 3D Drawingling

CAD

Galaxy / Constraints

CAD

Rendering

CAD

Bounded Dissect Rediscerption (FEA)

CAD

3D Scanning

CAD

Computer Watery Dynamics (CFD)

CAD

Additive Manufacturing /Rapid prototyping  (3D Printing)

  • Esthetic Extrusion / Fused Deaspect Drawingling (FDM)
  • VAT Polymerisation
  • Esthetic Jetting
  • Binder Jetting
  • Powder Bed Fusion
  • Sheet Lamination
  • Directed Energy Deposition

CAM

CNC Machining

  • Machining Kindes
    • Roughing
    • Semi-finishing
    • Finishing
    • Contour Milling

CAM

Board 1. CAD/CAM As-wellls & Technologies.

4.1 3D Drawingling

CAD applies computer technology to consequence constructive 3D drawings and / or 2D drawings of components. It is throughextinguished the chattels personality cycle applied from concept delineation to estate rediscerption and defining manufacturing methods (CAD Software 2017, Computer Aided Delineation 2017).

In the diversions and retirement toil, a chattelss observes are as main as its employment. The chattels’s aesthetics and victory in the diversioning province are hoped to help inferior sales on the excellent street. Aesthetics are sturdy by delineationers and Chaffering by creating personalityaffect drawings in CAD. These delineations can be correctiond to cupel consumer responsiveness to the chattels, or to selecteded the most resorting chattels from a method of delineations extinguishedcacorrection the modification ce multiple sketches. In CAD, colours and backgrounds can be progressive at the flick click of mocorrection (Adidas Group 2013).

In specificization, CAD drawings alalput the firmations ce the contact of a multiformity of other as-wellls which grasp euphuism, substantial prototyping, bounded dissect rediscerption and divers others. Building delineations in CAD rather than on disquisition, empowers a stop-gapless integration with other technologies (Bosch 2011).

Emblem 3. An Present 3D CAD Drawing of the Adidas Brazuca Baseball. (Adidas Group 2013).

4.2 Statement

Statement is the figment of an playation from a CAD drawing. It fashions chattels visualisations of the chattels in its environment which can be correctiond throughextinguished the delineation kind, from communicating present concepts to fashion bribe in, assessing customer cacorrection in proposed chattelss and aiding to vview decisive chattelss online or through chaffering esthetic anteriorly they physically rest. Such visualisations accelerate concept laudations, fulfill quantitys, vview chattelss and can lessen era to chaffer (A Picture’s Estimate a Thousand Words 2014).

Josh Mings (Marketing Manager, Luxion) customary that “Designers and engineers impress fabulous deviate to visualise their purposes. In the elapsed, we were scant to whatever hideshots we could comaspect up or, at best, arduously creating an baseless or foghamake judgment. Now, 3D statement software integralows us to fashion visuals that observe as authentic as the view chattels communicating the purpose anteriorly a share of esthetic is well-behaved-balanced fogh.” (A Picture’s Estimate a Thousand Words 2014).

Emblem 4. A 3D CAD Drawing of the Decisive Iteration of the Adidas Brazuca Baseball, Rendered onto a Crisp Background (Adidas Group 2013).

4.3 Bounded Dissect Rediscerption (FEA)

Along with Computational Watery Dynamics (CFD), FEA has been the most indiscriminately applied technology to baseglobe delineation. FEA restraintetells a CAD drawing’s behaviour when questioned to a multiformity of stipulations that may move operation and detail if it achieve employment to its delineation (Bounded Dissect Rediscerption 2017). This is sharp to a chattels which would be subordinate extensive media sifting during excellent line well-behaved-balancedts.

Yamagata University fashiond a bounded dissect drawing of a inferior leg applicationing a baseball. The rapidity and rotate of a baseglobe was reflection-extinguished ce contrariant application subsidence unpremeditatedsets from the capital of the globe. They firm that rotate enlargementd as the globe was strike elapsed to the cacorrection of the capital of magnitude. Reducing the coefficient of abrasion to cipher did referable impoverish the rotate to cipher when the globe was strike unpremeditated capital, as the globe’s deformation environing the base empowerd torque to be applied. This unconcealed the base to fashion rotate well-behaved-balanced in humid essence (Arauju et al 2005).

Emblem 5. Bounded dissect of the inferior leg applicationing a baseglobe (Haake 2002).

Emblem 6. The chattels of rebeling aspect and abrasion and globe exodus characteristics (Haake 2002).

A harmonious FEA was applied to the chattels of the Adidas Teamgeist globe ce the 2006 Cosmos-people Cup and the Adidas Brazuca globe ce the 2014 Cosmos-people Cup. In manage to subordinatestand the chattels of structural changes on the globe as a chattels of application, the globes’ behaviour, when struck at 100mph, was drawingled. This cupeling contributed to changes in the inelegance division of the accrues of the globe. (Cotton, Ross T., 2008).

“We needed repeatable, or-laws chattelss, the robot leg unconcealed us to rebel a globe the selfselfcorresponding restraintm whole era. We can cupel the exodus track, truthfulness and accelerate. We can as-well-behaved humid the globe and cupel in contrariant stipulations as-well-behaved and well-behaved-balanced integraput contrariant boots on the view of the leg to cupel how that moves wholething.” (Adidas Brazuca Cosmos-people Cup Baseglobe Delineation 2014)

Emblem 7. FEA structural cupeling of the Adidas Teamgeist (Cotton, Ross T., 2008).

4.4 Computational Watery Dynamics (CFD)

CFD simulates watery (either progressing or fog) latter through or environing an view to restraintetell the application of such progresss on chattels operation (CFD 2017).

Wind tunnel cupels were chattelsed by the University of Shefprovince to assess the aerodynamics of baseballs. The con-over showed that, as a baseball’s exodus slows, it trials a hasty leap in haul cece of environing 25%. The enlargementd haul occurred at the view of the trajectory when the globe was roving slowest and emphasised incidental deviations that occurred ascribable to rotate. Up until this trial, elate and haul coefficients on rotatening baseballs had been obscure to fashion. By applying CFD, it was firm that the elate coefficient rose from cipher ce a non-spinning globe to environing 0.2 ce a globe with 100 rad/s of rotate. (Arauju et al 2005).

This chattels is unconcealed as ‘knuckling’. CFD showed that knuckling occurs in stop-gaped globes where any disregard move makes the stop-derangement disunion points modify aspect, qualitative to passable accidental causeways deviations. (Haake 2002)

Emblem 8. Haul coefficient vs Reynold’s reckon (Haake 2002).

Emblem 9. Measured haul ceces on a region puter baseglobe vs Reynold’s reckon (Haake 2002).

A harmonious rediscerption was subordinatecaptured by Adidas to assimilate the behaviour of the Teamgeist and Jabulani globes, when educeing the Teamgeist ce the 2014 Cosmos-people Cup (NASA Deviates Cosmos-people Cup into a Lesson in Aerodynamics 2015). The 2010 cosmos-people cup baseglobe Jabulani was criticised ce having an unpredicboard trajectory “The 2010 Cosmos-people Cup globe, the Jabulani, was illustrative as honorablely demonstrating hyperphysical moves. When rebeled with diminutive or no rotate, the globe knuckled… Knuckling occurs when, at cipher or close cipher rotate, the stop-gaps of the globe media essenceprogress in an remarkable and capricious kind, making its trajectory unpredictable”. (NASA Deviates Cosmos-people Cup into a Lesson in Aerodynamics 2014). Lore was subordinatecaptured using CFD to detail the reasons ce this. The Jabulani was assimilated to other Adidas baseballs to educe a line.

Emblem 10. Haul Coefficient of diversified baseballs(NASA Deviates Cosmos-people Cup into a Lesson in Aerodynamics 2014).

The chattelss implied that the haul on the Jabulani globe multitudinous with its panel orientation owing the aerodynamic ceces acting on the globe multitudinous according to panel orientation making its move unpredicboard (NASA Deviates Cosmos-people Cup into a Lesson in Aerodynamics 2014). “Knuckling occurs when, at cipher or close cipher rotate, the stop-gaps of the globe, media essenceprogress in an remarkable and capricious kind, making its trajectory unpredictable” Furthermore, the lore showed that ce the Jabulani, knuckling occurred at 55 mph, which is the middle rebeling accelerate of a professional baseballer. The knuckling chattels ce a transmitted globe is environing 30 mph (Haake 2002), hereafter the Jubalini’s elapsed many knuckling. To surrender a elapsed restraintetellable exoduspath, ce the Brazuca globe, the hazardous accelerate ce climax knuckling was delineationed to be environing 30 mph. (NASA Deviates Cosmos-people Cup into a Lesson in Aerodynamics 2014).

4.5 3D Scanning

3D scanning involves the laser scanning of components to empower their multiplicity in 3D CAD (3D Laser Scan Volume 2017).  Dr John Hart (Lore Fellow, Shefprovince Hallam University) laser scanned the exterior of the Adidas Jabulani and Brazuca baseballs to consequence 3D CAD drawings of the globes’ stop-gaps (Secrets of the Innovating Cosmos-people Cup Globe 2014). The stop-gaps on the Brazuca were shown to be thicker and longer than the Jabulani. The profoundness of the Jabulani’s stop-derangement was environing 0.48 mm, whilst the Brazuca stop-derangement was measured at 1.56 mm thick. The extension of the stop-gaps on the Jabulani was almost 203cm whilst the Brazuca was environing 327cm.

CFD tunnel cupels confirmed that baseballs with rougher exteriors (the Brazuca) tour trice. As a baseglobe flies through the essence, its stop-gaps instigate and derange the essence with a harmonious chattels of golf globe dimples. Dr Simon Choppin,

(Shefprovince Hallam University) customary that “This excitement is ascititious ce steadsteadfast and referable spurious exodus. The stop-gaps of a baseglobe derange the progress of the essence” (Secrets of the Innovating Cosmos-people Cup Globe 2014).

The Brazuca had contrariant stop-derangement geodesy to that of the Jabulani which meant that the 2 globes’ trajectories differed during CFD rediscerption (Secrets of the Innovating Cosmos-people Cup Globe 2014). As panel stop-gaps impress been shown to application up a baseball’s trajectory, this rediscerption would be main in determining its characteristics.

Emblem 11.  The Brazuca (left), has contrariant stop-derangement geodesy to that of the Jabulani globe (right). (Secrets of the Innovating Cosmos-people Cup Globe 2014).

Emblem 12.  Comparison of the Adidas Jabulani and criterion stitched baseglobe (Secrets of the Innovating Cosmos-people Cup Globe 2014).

Emblem 13.  Stop-derangement line of the Adidas Brazuca (Secrets of the Innovating Cosmos-people Cup Globe 2014).

Sales of Replica Cosmos-people Cup Baseballs are estimate on middle $500m to Adidas, sales of which peak during the tournament itself (Adidas Releases Soccer Globe Estimate Half a Billion Dollars 2013). This is exemplifies the wholesale prize that a baseglobe can pput to a emanationionr. To maximise wholesale fashions, it is peremptorily that the chattels is brought to chaffer on era, be aesthetically resorting and accomplish as expected, in this specimen, during the tournament. Concept laudation by customers, euphuism, cupeling and redelineation must be completed satisfactorily, in a eraly kind, to detail that sales are maximised. Chattels chattels consumes must as-well-behaved be minimised to maximise avail.

CAD supports this by driving inferior chattels chattels consumes, increasing chattelsivity, fit tendency and accelerateing era to chaffer (CAD 2017) enabling an organisation to accrue competitive or fashion an utility.

In specificization, CAD provides:

  • Improved visualisation of the decisive chattels, sub-assemblies and voter volume accelerateing the delineation kind.
  • Main truthfulness, reducing iterations and defects.
  • Simple, sturdy delineation documentation.
  • Absolute replication of delineation cause and best manner (CAD 2017).

Technology

Consume of Technology*

Consume of Employee**

Redeviate on Investment

CAD Drawingling

£3,000

£13,333

Designs can be correctiond to cupel consumer responsiveness to the chattels. Feeds other CAD technologies.

CAD Statement

£3,000

£13,333

Faster concept laudation, quantity identification and era to chaffer

FEA

£25,000

£13,333

Predicts a CAD drawing’s behaviour when questioned to a multiformity of stipulations. Issues can be rooted earlier to emanationion.

CFD

£25,000

£13,333

Simulates the application of fog/flowing progresss on chattels operation. Issues can be rooted earlier to emanationion.

3D Laser

£25,000

£13,333

Enables multiplicity of resting chattelss to be nurture into CADCAM technologies ce resolution.

Board 2. Redeviate on Investment Resolution

* Ascertained through fashioning middle quotes cem internet sources

**Hypothetical 3 month date @ £40,000 p.a.

The consume estimates in board sum £147,665. When firm abutting the headline sales emblem of $500m ce the sale of cosmos-people cup baseballs, bombastic that avail makes up a weighty dissect of this emblem, it suggests that the ROI is weighty ascribable to the utilitys discussed previously. In specificization, if competitors such as Nike, are kept extinguished of the chaffer and destitute avail as a chattels, there is a inclose payback.

Although the chattels consumes are mysterious, it would show that, to accrue competitive in a excellent line chaffer such as baseball, CAD is a must in sustaining chattels

 

6.1 3D Playation

Emblem 14. 3D CAD Drawing, Delineationed in SolidWorks.

6.2 Rendered Playation – Courtly Firmting

Emblem 15. 3D CAD Courtly Statement, Delineationed in SolidWorks.

6.3 Rendered Playation – Liberal Province Firmting

Emblem 16. 3D CAD Liberal Province Statement, Delineationed in SolidWorks.

 

6.4 CAD Drawing and Statement Discussion

As the parent had no CAD trial earlier to the Module, a absolute drawing was fashiond and rendered in couple contrariant environments to conduct how the selfselfcorresponding chattels could be advertised in contrariant restraintms to resort to contrariant customers, the courtly baseballer and baseballer’s who impress mode to liberal provinces. This conducts the versatility of CAD and supports the ROI minority in that 2 contrariant scenarios can be presented at the click of a pin ce interior laudation, customer referablee and advertising.

3D Laser Scan Volume [Online]. http://www.jensen-consulting.co.uk/cad-drafting-services/reverse-engineering/3d-laser-scan-volume [Accessed: 21st March 2017].

A Picture’s Estimate a Thousand Words [Online]. http://www.3dcadworld.com/pictures-worth-thousand-words-rendering-increasingly-important-product-development/ [Accessed: 21st March 2017].

Adidas Brazuca Cosmos-people Cup Baseglobe Delineation [Online]. https://www.dezeen.com/2014/07/13/adidas-brazuca-world-cup-2014-football-design/ [Accessed: 21st March 2017].

Adidas Group [Online]. www.adidas-group.com/media/filer_public/2013/07/31/gb_2012_en.pdf [Accessed: 26th March 2017].

Adidas Releases Soccer Globe Estimate Half a Billion Dollars [Online]. http://keepingscore.blogs.time.com/2013/12/03/adidas-releases-soccer-ball-worth-a-half-billion-dollars/ [Accessed: 26th March 2017].

Araujo, D., Cabri, J. and Reilly, T. (2005). Science and Baseglobe V. London: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, pp. 26-37.

Bosch, G., (2011). [Online]. Fashion Better, Safer Delineations by Interfacing CAD Drawings with Algor Rediscerption Capabilities. http://www.algor.com/news_pub/user_reviews/1999/bosch/bosch.asp [Accessed: 26th March 2017].

CAD Software [Online]. www.autodesk.com/solutions/cad-software [Accessed: 21st March 2017].

CFD [Online]. https://www.plm.automation.siemens.com/en_gb/plm/cad.shtml [Accessed: 21st March 2017].

CFD [Online]. http://www.solidworks.co.uk/sw/products/simulation/computational-fluid-dynamics.htm [Accessed: 21st March 2017].

Computer Aided Delineation [Online]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer-aided_delineation [Accessed: 21st March 2017].

Cotton, Ross T., (2008). [Online].  Exterior Interactions of Soccer Globes https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/10765 [Accessed: 21st March 2017].

Bounded Dissect Rediscerption [Online]. http://www.autodesk.com/solutions/finite-element-rediscerption [Accessed: 21st March 2017].

Haake, S., (2002). Diversions Engineering. Injenia Magazine, 12 (2), p. 24 -30.

Mehta, R., (2014). [Online]. NASA Deviates Cosmos-people Cup into a Lesson in Aerodynamics. https://www.nasa.gov/content/nasa-turns-world-cup-into-lesson-in-aerodynamics [Accessed: 18th March 2017].

What is Diversions Engineering? [Online]. http://www.sportsengineering.org/students/what-is-sports-engineering/ [Accessed: 18th March 2017].

Reflection

Earlier the Enigma Artifice, the parent had no trial of CAD/CAM and had never seen it in correction. Trial among the team was very scant, so it was main that the team dynamic was such that wholespecific contributed to the best of their ability.

The team compositioned well-behaved-behaved itemedly. Specific appointer of the team did impress a very diminutive sumity of CAD trial excluding it was main that the confluence of the team was referable as-well-behaved excellent. This is why it was agreed that the delineation should be absolute, so that it would be achievable fond the suited aptitude firm.

The team opted to correction the London Subordinateground prefiguration as the cause ce a enigma. Determining how triton that was transmittedly in specific share could be dull down into voter volume, to cem a enigma, was challenging. Although the standpoint of the method was on technology, transmitted pencil and disquisition sketches ascertaind worthless in generating the moderate concepts.

Generating the agreed concept in SolidWorks ascertaind to be obscure fond that integral the trial, albeit scant, alalput with specific appointer of the team. The other appointers of the team were supportive and helped where  feasible, at-last, the onus was very abundant on that specific. The parent was on the periphery of the CAD drawingling kind. At-last, watching the drawing educe, deviate, be divided and concomitant itemedly on hide was imposing and granted the parent with an cacorrection in the kind and a hanker to attain elapsed. Ce the foremost era on the rank plan, the parent firm the trained comaspect to be tart, reflection sharp and causeing. Contacts extinguishedcacorrection of the automotive toil were affectly. Reflections were as-well-behaved captured into the Post Module Provision (PMA), where the parent was dazed to subordinatestand that CAD could be applied to the emanationion of everything, including things of cacorrection to them, the cause of the PMA would for-this-reason be cemed by a question extinguishedcacorrection of the transmitted authenticms of engineering.

The concept of statement was introduced during the CAD stages of the artifice. Repeatedly, this was innovating to the parent and would ascertain salutary in sustaining the PMA.

Watching the as-welll track being educeed in Alpha Cam was very imposing and repeatedly, tart. Euphuism excellentlighted issues with engraving lettering onto the delineation.  The euphuism was hasten with a 1mm morsel excluding the passage was referable intelligible. The lettering was adjusted to be intailed elapsed thickly which improved the aesthetics excluding high a sorrow environing longevity of the train morsel and the application on worth per item.

Earlier to the module, the parent subordinatestood that components and chattelss could be delineationed in CAD excluding how this happened was referable intelligible. The module industrious this attaining derangement. The parent was as-well-behaved unconscious of CAM, what it was or what it did. The euphuism as-wellls and the interaction with CNC, 3D printing expectation were chiefly innovating concepts to the parent and they firm them to be causeing and cognizance enhancing.

If the parent were to accomplish the drudgery repeatedly, they would spview some era compositioning with CAD/CAM technology in trice so that they could subjoin elapsed prize to the kind. Lore into contrariant methods of applying lettering to delineations would as-well-behaved be fond so that a elapsed sturdy discerption could be implemented.

It is honorable that the parent has completed a module and felt affect they impress attained triton that they achieve reappointer or has fond them a main subordinatestanding of how existent manufacturing compositions cem CAD to CAM and the other technologies in betwixt. Although the parent is by no media a CAD/CAM speedy, they now impress that they can dialogue environing the question with assurance.

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