An enterococcus faecalis bacterium

Background
An enterococcus faecalis bacterium is a bacteria that is commonly found in the large intestines of human beings though not pathogenic when in the intestines as it cannot cause a disease. The enterococcus bacteria is known to enter the human body through openings such as open wounds in the skin as well as during operations in case the equipment used is contaminated with the virus. The main cause of the transfer of this bacterium is poor hygiene. Due to its availability in the intestines and not pathogenic while there, it is important to dispose off the human waste in places that the bacterium cannot gain access to humans. This is because it is readily available in human waste that is known to pass through the large intestine where it could have carried the bacterium. Once the bacteria is out of the large intestine, it can infect the human skin when it gains access to catheters, thus making it crucial for those patients having catheters to practice good hygiene. The picture below shows an enterococcus faecalis bacterium.

Among the many methods that the bacteria can be detected are discussed below. The first method is the;

Bacitracin test
Procedure of test
i. Select a beta-hemolytic colony and heavily inoculating 5% of sheep blood agar plate.
ii. Drop an ‘A’ disk in the heavier zone of inoculation and then tap the disk light so as to make sure that it adheres to the agar.
iii. Incubate the plate overnight in Carbon IV oxide at 35 degrees
Results
In the case of zoning of inhibition, it is considered that the bacterium is present, a positive test or a sensitive test. When there is growth at the edge of the disk, it is then taken to be a negative or resistant test meaning that the bacterium is not present in the sample.
Arginine hydrolysis
Procedure of test
i. In this method one to three drops of culture suspension to the tube of Moeller’s decarboxylase medium that contains arginine.
ii. The culture suspension in the tube of Moeller decarboxylase is then overlaid immediately with about 2ml of sterile mineral oil.
iii. The medium is then incubated at about 35E C for seven days in ambient air.
Results
The results in this test are recorded with the broth turning into deep blue, thus indicating an alkaline reaction of ammonia solution that is released. This indicates the presence of the bacteria in the sample. In the instance of no change or a yellow color of the broth, then this indicates that there is no bacterium in the sample.
Enterococcus bacteria is capable of causing a number of diseases with one of such diseases being the intra-Abdominal, pelvic and soft tissue infection that is commonly found in wounds as a result of unhygienic practices that give the bacteria access into the open wounds. The other disease that is caused by the enterococcus bacteria is the urinary tract infection, a disease that is common among older men and occurs in the lower parts of the urinary tract. Such infections that are evidenced in the urinary tract include the cystitis, epididymitis and the prostatitis. The third disease that the enterococcus bacterium is capable of causing is the bacteremia, an infection that occurs when the bacteria arise from the intra-abdominal or the biliary sources. The treatment of the bacteremia infection can be more problematic as compared to other infections that are caused by the bacteria due to its noncarditis source.
The main sources of the bacteria in a hospital set up may be from unhygienic washrooms that are left unattended. Failure by patients to clean their hands after visiting the washrooms may lead to the transmission of the bacteria since the bacteria is capable of being found in the fecal waste. Also doctors who do not practice good hygiene may transmit the bacterium to the patient as they may also carry the bacteria from the washrooms to the wounds of the patients as they attend them. Failure by the doctors and surgeons to keep the surgical equipment unhygienic places may also make them carry the viruses to the patients as they are being attended to.
Countering the transmission of the bacteria in a hospital is very vital due to the large population of people found there. Public washrooms in the hospitals require frequent cleaning so that the bacteria cannot have enough time to build up as make it easier to transfer the disease to the patients. Also patients who have undergone surgeries require to cover their wounds so that the bacteria cannot get access into them.

References
Ocvirk, S. (2015). Impact of Enterococcus faecalis in the regulation of chronic intestinal inflammation: Structure-function relationship in microbe-host interaction.
Repp, C., & Hübner, J. (2011). Screening of enterococcus faecalis mutants regarding their susceptibility to the humoral and cellular immune system: = Reihenuntersuchung von Enterococcus-faecalis-Mutanten im Hinblick auf ihre Empfindlichkeit gegenüber dem humoralen und zellulären Immunsystem.

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